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Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.Boutouyrie, Pierre; Lacolley, Patrick; Briet, Marie; Regnault, Véronique; Stanton, Alice; Laurent, Stéphane; Mahmud, Azra; HEGP, Assistance-publique Hpitaux de Paris, INSERM U970, Universit Paris Descartes, France. Pierre.firstname.lastname@example.org (2011-09-10)Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for 'de-stiffening drugs', so far only advanced glycation endproduct cross-link breakers have shown promise.