• Ebola virus disease: review and implications for dentistry in Ireland

      Galvin, Sheila; Flint, Stephen R; Healy, Claire M (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-06)
      The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has developed into a global healthcare emergency with implications for all healthcare professionals. This article will review the clinical features, transmission and oral manifestations of Ebola virus infection, and discuss the implications of the current outbreak for dental practices in Ireland. The Ebola virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Filoviridae family that was first recognised after two outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo (previously Zaire) and Southern Sudan in 1976.1 The former occurred in a village near the Ebola River, after which the virus was named. Five different species of Ebola virus are now recognised: Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaire, Reston and Tai Forest. The Zaire strain remains the most lethal, with a mortality rate of 76%, and is the cause of the current, twenty-fifth Ebola epidemic.1,2 The current outbreak in West Africa, which began in Guinea in March 2014, is the largest and most complex since the virus was first recognised, involving more infections and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined, and involving capital cities and major urban centres for the first time. To date, there have been 25,855 cases and 10,717 deaths3,4 (correct on April 17, 2015), with the vast majority of cases in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. There have also been cases in Nigeria, Senegal, Mali, Spain, the United States and United Kingdom
    • Mandibular implant-supported overdentures: attachment systems, and number and locations of implants – Part I

      Abdulhadi Warreth; Aslam Fadel Alkadhimi; Ahmed Sultan; Trinity College Dublin (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-04)
      The use of dental implants in replacing missing teeth is an integral part of restorative dental treatment. Use of conventional complete dentures is associated with several problems such as lack of denture stability, support and retention. However, when mandibular complete dentures were used with two or more implants, an improvement in the patients’ psychological and social well-being could be seen. There is general consensus that removable implant-supported overdentures (RISOs) with two implants should be considered as the first-choice standard of care for an edentulous mandible. This treatment option necessitates the use of attachment systems that connect the complete denture to the implant. Nevertheless, each attachment system has its inherent advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered when choosing a system. The first part of this article provides an overview on options available to restore the mandibular edentulous arch with dental implants. Different types of attachment systems, their features and drawbacks are also reviewed.
    • The occurrence of paraesthesia of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve after dental local anaesthetic use: a case report

      Moorthy, Advan; Stassen, Leo FA (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-02)
      Local anaesthetics are usually safe, effective and indispensable drugs used routinely in dentistry. Local anaesthetics allow dentistry to be practised in a painfree environment. However, their use may involve complications. Paraesthesia can be defined as persistent anaesthesia (anaesthesia well beyond the expected duration) or as an altered sensation (tingling or itching).1-3 It is the result of damage to a nerve and the occurrence of paraesthesia following the use of local anaesthesia in dentistry represents a rare but important side effect, which is often under-reported4-8 and is important in medico-legal practice. To date, there have been very few recorded incidences or published cases of maxillary nerve paraesthesia following the use of dental local anaesthetic for a routine extraction
    • Does the dentist have a role in identifying patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus?

      Sultan, A; Warreth, A; Fleming, P; MacCarthy, D (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2014-12)
      Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of abnormal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that is caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin.1 Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood and has a genetic, viral or autoimmune aetiology. Type 2 diabetes has a multifactorial aetiology with a strong genetic component and the condition can be prevented by simple lifestyle education
    • Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

      ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A; Division of Public and Child Dental Health-Dublin Dental University Hospital-Trinity College-Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin2, Ireland, rawankarmi@yahoo.com. (European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 2014-11-04)
      To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children.
    • Laryngotracheal presentation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamous differentiation: seven cases demonstrating an under-recognized diagnostic pitfall

      Toner, Mary; Banville, Niamh; Timon, Conrad I; Dublin Dental University Hospital; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland (2014-10)
    • Management of primary molar infraocclusion in general practice.

      McGeown, Mary; O'Connell, Anne (Irish Dental Assocation (IDA), 2014-08)
      Statement of the problem: Infraoccluded primary molars can be managed in general dental practice but clinicians need to understand when intervention is necessary.
    • Reading a panoramic radiograph.

      Bolas, Andrew (Irish Dental Assocation (IDA), 2014-08)
      Poor-quality radiographs make diagnosis difficult or sometimes impossible. Rather than try and formulate a diagnosis or treatment plan from a poor radiograph, a decision should be made at an early stage to assess whether the exposure needs to be repeated or not. Panoramic radiographs have a number of inherent faults due to the mechanism by which the image is created, they are also hugely reliant on the positioning of the patient.
    • Oral Hairy Leukoplakia in Healthy, Immunocompetent Individuals

      Galvin, S; Healy, CM (Irish Medical Journal, 2014-06)
      OHL, first described in 1981 and caused by the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), presents as white, shaggy, non-removable plaques, typically on the lateral borders of the tongue 5 . It was initially considered pathognomic of HIV infection and latterly of immunosuppression. However more recently it is increasingly being reported as a complication of localised immunosuppression with topical or inhaled steroids 7-9 . Rare cases have also been documented in HIV negative individuals with no underlying history of topical or systemic immunosuppression 3,4,8,9 . It has been postulated that age may be a factor in some of these cases and chronic reactivation of EBV has been found to be related to aging 10 .
    • Case report: sublingual epidermoid cyst in an elderly patient

      Anderson, Stephen; Stassen, Leo FA (Irish Dental Association, 2014-05)
      A 77-year-old female was referred by her general dental practitioner (GDP) to the accident and emergency (A and E) department of Dublin Dental University Hospital (DDUH). The patient’s dentist had noted an incidental finding of a swelling ‘the size of an apple’ in the patient’s floor of mouth. The patient reported that the swelling had been present and unchanged for around three years. The patient presented with no dyspnoea, dysphagia, or pain, and seemed unconcerned by the swelling. The patient’s family did report a slight change in speech over recent years – she had developed a slight lisp. There was no history of previous trauma or surgery to the region.
    • Periodontitis in older Swedish individuals fails to predict mortality

      Renvert, Stefan; Wallin-Bengtsson, Viveca; Berglund, Johan; Persson, Rutger G.; Dublin Dental University Hospital (2014-03-23)
    • What should dental services for people with disabilities be like? Results of an Irish delphi panel survey.

      Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Nunn, June; Dougall, Alison; O'Neill, Eunan; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Guerin, Suzanne; Department of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental University Hospital and Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. (2014)
      This study aimed to generate prioritised goals for oral health services for people with disabilities as a first step in meeting the need for evidence based oral health services for people with disabilities in Ireland.
    • Quality of 'commercial-off-the-shelf' (COTS) monitors displaying dental radiographs

      McIlgorm, D. J.; Lawinski, C.; Ng, S.; McNulty, J. P. (2013-12-06)
    • Results of data gathered at a smoking cessation counselling stand in the Dublin Dental University Hospital on Mouth Cancer Awareness Day 2012

      Waldron, C; Brett, C; Cronin, O; Guray, A; Hynes, A; McGovern, C; Ryan, M (Irish Dental Association (IDA), 2013-12)
      A smoking cessation counselling stand was run by the lecturer in dental hygiene and six second-year dental hygiene students between the hours of 8.30am and 5.30pm on Mouth Cancer Awareness Day, Wednesday September 19, 2012.
    • Case report: management of broken dental needles in practice

      Rahman, Naomi; Clarke, Mary; Stassen, Leo FA (Irish Dental Assocation (IDA), 2013-10)
      It is estimated that 60,000 cartridges of local anaesthetic are used weekly in the USA for dental anaesthesia by infiltration or block injections.1 The complication of needle breakage after an inferior alveolar nerve block is relatively rare in dental practice.2 One of the first ever case series on dental needle breakage was published in 1928 by Blum, who reported 65 broken needles over a tenyear period.3 The routine use of single-use, disposable stainless steel needles made from stronger alloys has decreased this complication.4 Today, needle breakage during local anaesthesia may be attributed to a faulty needle, an incorrect anaesthetic injection technique or sudden movement by the patient in a direction opposite to the needle.5 It is important to caution the patient against sudden movement during administration of the injection. The needle should not be redirected against tissue resistance while it is embedded in tissue, as this can cause breakage to occur.6
    • Commonly used topical oral wound dressing materials in dental and surgical practice – a literature review

      Freedman, Michael; Stassen, Leo FA (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2013-07)
      A small number of medicaments are used in oral and maxillofacial surgery to dress wounds, relieve pain, prevent infection and promote healing. While these materials are routinely used, their constituents, uses and effects on oral tissues are rarely discussed. This literature review provides an overview of the constituents, uses and effects of the common materials – oxidised regenerated cellulose, Whitehead’s varnish, Carnoy’s solution, bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and Alvogyl.
    • Detection of mecC-Positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI) in Diseased European Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Sweden

      Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Lazaris, Alexandros; Coleman, David C.; Shore, Anna C.; Ehricht, Ralf; Dublin Dental University Hospital (2013-06-12)
    • The Dentist’s role within the multi-disciplinary team maintaining quality of life for oral cancer patients inlight of recent advances in radiotherapy

      Brody, Sarah; Omer, Osama; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Stassen, Leo (Irish Dental Association, 2013-06)
      Every year in Ireland over 400 people are diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Oral cancer, a specific type of head and neck cancer, is usually treated with surgery and often requires radiotherapy (RT). However, side effects of RT treatment, which include mucositis, xerostomia, radiation caries, trismus and osteoradionecrosis, can seriously compromise a patient’s quality of life. Treatment for oral cancer patients is managed in a multidisciplinary team. General dental practitioners (GDPs), consultant/specialist dentists and oral-maxillofacial surgeons play an important role in these patients’ care. Recent advances in the delivery of RT have not only improved locoregional control and survival rates, but have also reduced the incidence and severity of RT-associated side effects; however, no mode of RT delivery has successfully eliminated side effects. The role of dentists is essential in maintaining oral health and all patients should be dentally screened prior to commencing RT. Recent reports have attempted to standardise the quality of care for the oral cancer patient and have highlighted the significance of the role of the GDP. Despite the advancements in RT delivery, the dental team is still faced with a number of challenges, including the high number of patients lost to follow-up dental care, lack of an effective treatment for xerostomia, poor patient compliance, and a lack of standardised guidelines and funding. Addressing these challenges will involve increased communication between all members of the multidisciplinary team and increased involvement of the GDP, thereby ensuring that dental care continues to evolve concurrently with new methods of RT delivery.
    • The development of mouth, head and neck cancer awareness in Ireland and results of Mouth Cancer Awareness Day 2011.

      MacCarthy, Denise; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; McAlister, Conor; Healy, Claire M; Flint, Stephen; Toner, Mary; Nunn, June; Allen, Finbarr; Gorman, Tina; O'Sullivan, Michael; et al. (2013-05-21)