• The health behaviour of school-aged children in the South Western Area Health Board

      Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (2005)
    • The healthcare burden of Gestational Diabetes in Ireland

      Gillespie, P; Avalos, G; O Reilly, M (2010)
    • High prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance postpartum is reduced by breastfeeding in women with prior gestationIal diabetes mellitus

      O'Reilly, MW; Avalos, G; Dennedy, MC; O'Sullivan, EP; Dunne, F; Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland and University College Hospital, Galway, Ireland. (2011)
      Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy. Materials and methods: We compared results from 300 women with GDM and 220 women with NGT according to IADPSG criteria using a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks gestation by repeating the 75g OGTT postpartum to reassess glucose status. We also tested for postpartum metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to international criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to identify maternal factors that increased the risk of persistent glucose intolerance. Postpartum lactation status was categorised as breastfeeding alone, bottle-feeding alone, or both. Results: 520 women were tested. OGTT results were classified as normal (FPG<5.6mmol/l; 2h<7.8mmol/l) or abnormal (IFG; 5.6-6.9, IGT; 2h 7.8-11.0, IFG+IGT; T2DM FPG 7 ± 2h 11.1). Six of 220 (2.7%) women with NGT in pregnancy had postpartum dysglycaemia compared to 57 of 300 women (19%) with GDM in pregnancy (P<0.001). Non-Caucasian ethnicity (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.45-8.02, P=0.005), family history of T2DM (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.06-4.32, P=0.034) and insulin use in pregnancy (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.17-5.87, P=0.019) were all predictive of persistent dysglycaemia. MetS was present postpartum in 31 of 300 women (10.3%) with GDM compared to 18 (8.2%) of 220 women with NGT (P=0.4). The prevalence of persistent dysglycaemia was lower in women who breast-fed versus bottle-fed their babies, or employed both techniques (7.1% v 18.4% and 11.2%, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusion: In this Irish population the prevalence of persistent glucose intolerance in women with GDM in pregnancy is 19% compared to 2.7% in NGT women. Breast-feeding confers a beneficial effect on postpartum glucose tolerance. The precise mechanism behind this association is unclear and requires further study.
    • High Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Adult Patients with Bronchiectasis

      Duignan, N; McDonnell, MJ; Mokoka, MC; Rutherford, RM (Irish Medical Journal, 2016-07)
      Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is frequently under-reported in patients with chronic lung disease and may have negative psychosocial consequences. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence, severity and treatment outcomes of SUI in female bronchiectasis patients referred for airway clearance techniques. Nineteen out of 40 (48%) patients reported SUI symptoms. Of these, 14 (74%) reported a reduced quality of life secondary to SUI. Following personalised intervention, symptom improvement was observed in 13/19 (68%). Five out of 19 (26%) required specialist referral for further continence care. No associations with lung disease severity and SUI were noted. SUI is common in adult female bronchiectasis patients and should be routinely screened for to improve patients’ overall quality of life.
    • Home administration of bortezomib: making a difference to myeloma patients' lives.

      Meenaghan, Teresa; O'Dwyer, Michael; Hayden, Patrick; Hayat, Amjad; Murray, Margaret; Dowling, Maura; St Josephs Ward, Galway University Hospital, Newcastle Road, Galway, Ireland. onc.haematology@hse.ie (2010-04)
    • Homocysteine, the cholesterol of the 21st century. Impact of hyperhomocysteinemia on patency and amputation-free survival after intervention for critical limb ischemia.

      Heneghan, Helen M; Sultan, Sherif; Western Vascular Institute, Department of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway, Ireland. (Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists, 2008-08)
      To assess the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and determine any correlation to the clinical and technical outcome of peripheral arterial revascularization for critical limb ischemia (CLI).
    • Horizontal strabismus surgical outcomes in a teaching hospital

      Idrees, Z; Dooley, I; Fahy, G (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2014-06)
      Strabismus may result in impaired stereopsis, diplopia, undesirable appearance, amblyopia and negative psychological impact. This study provides epidemiological and surgical outcome information about patients attending University College Hospital Galway requiring strabismus surgery. We report a retrospective analysis of 75 consecutive patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery. Sixty-one (81.3%) patients had clinically significant refractive errors, hyperopia being the most common. Thirty-four (45.3%) patients had amblyopia and nine (12%) required further treatment. A cosmetically acceptable result with a post-operative ocular deviation within 25 prism dioptres of straight (grade 2) was achieved in 70/75 (93.3%) of patients. The overall mean change in ocular deviation per mm of muscle operated was 3.25 prism dioptre/mm. The outcomes of strabismus surgery in an Irish hospital compare very favourably with other jurisdictions. This data will help plan service delivery.
    • Human Papilloma Virus- Associated Head and Neck Cancer: A 21st Century Pandemic; Assessing Student Awareness and Knowledge

      Kavanagh, F.G; McNamara, A.T; Fopohunda, O; Keogh, I.J (Irish Medical Journal, 2018-11)
      The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal agent in a subset of Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) being diagnosed in younger patients without significant tobacco and alcohol use. This survey assessed the awareness level of HNC and HPV vaccinations in university students.
    • The human POLH gene is not mutated, and is expressed in a cohort of patients with basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

      Flanagan, Annabelle M; Rafferty, Gerard; O'Neill, Anne; Rynne, Leonie; Kelly, Jack; McCann, Jack; Carty, Michael P; Department of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. (2007-04)
      Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the general population, is strongly associated with exposure to the ultraviolet component of sunlight. To investigate the relationship between DNA damage processing and skin tumour development, we determined the POLH status of a cohort of skin cancer patients. The human POLH gene encodes DNA polymerase eta (poleta), which normally carries out accurate translesion synthesis past the major UV-induced photoproduct, the dithymine cyclobutane dimer. In the absence of active poleta in xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients, mutations accumulate at sites of UV-induced DNA damage, providing the initiating step in skin carcinogenesis. Forty patients diagnosed with skin cancer were genotyped for polymorphisms in the POLH protein-coding sequence, using glycosylase-mediated polymorphism detection (GMPD) and direct DNA sequencing of POLH PCR products derived from white blood cell genomic DNA. All individuals carried the wild-type POLH sequence. No POLH mutations were identified in genomic DNA from skin tumours derived from 15 of these patients. As determined by RT-PCR, POLH mRNA was expressed in all normal and skin tumour tissue examined. Poleta protein was also detectable by Western blotting, in two matched normal and skin tumour extracts. An alternatively spliced form of POLH mRNA, lacking exon 2, was more readily detected in skin tissue than in white blood cells from the same patient. Real-time PCR was used to quantify POLH expression in matched normal and skin tumour-derived mRNA from a series of patients diagnosed with either basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Compared to matched normal skin tissue from the same patient, 1 of 7 SCC, and 4 of 10 BCC tumours examined showed at least a 2-fold reduction in POLH expression, while 1 of 7 SCC, and 3 of 10 BCC tumours showed at least a 2-fold increase in POLH expression. Differences in gene expression, rather than sequence changes may be the main mechanism by which POLH status varies between normal and skin tumours in the population under investigation. Knowledge of the POLH status in skin tumours could contribute to an understanding of the role of this gene in the development of the most common cancer in the general population.
    • Hydrocolloid dressing in pediatric burns may decrease operative intervention rates.

      Martin, Fiachra T; O'Sullivan, John B; Regan, Padraic J; McCann, Jack; Kelly, Jack L; Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. fiachra1978@yahoo.com (2010-03)
      Partial-thickness scalds are the most common pediatric burn injury, and primary management consists of wound dressings to optimize the environment for reepithelialization. Operative intervention is reserved for burns that fail to heal using conservative methods. Worldwide, paraffin-based gauze (Jelonet) is the most common burn dressing; but literature suggests that it adheres to wounds and requires more frequent dressing change that may traumatize newly epithelialized surfaces. Hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM) provide an occlusive moist environment to optimize healing and are associated with less frequent dressing changes.
    • Hypovitaminosis D in a healthy female population, aged from 40 to 85 years, in the west of Ireland.

      Lardner, E; Fitzgibbon, M; Wilson, S; Griffin, D; Mulkerrin, E; Biochemistry Laboratory, Galway University Hospital, Newcastle Road, Galway,, Ireland. eleanorlardner@gmail.com (2012-01-31)
      BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been focused on diseases associated with ageing, as the mean age of the population in developed countries increases. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone play key roles in calcium homeostasis, which is integral to skeletal health. AIMS: To assess the vitamin D status of healthy, community dwelling, middle-aged and older females. METHODS: General biochemistry and bone profiles, including ALP, PTH and 25(OH)D, were determined. RESULTS: Of 143 healthy white women receiving no supplementation or bone modifying treatments, 47% were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L) and only 4% were sufficient for the time of year. There was no statically significant correlation between age and 25(OH)D concentrations; neither was there a statistically significant seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels noted. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status should be assessed more often in middle-aged and older females. Expected age-related and seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels were not confirmed in this study.
    • I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For….. Bono, Google and Glaucoma Awareness

      Lyons, C; Ellard, R; McElnea, E; Townley, D (Irish Medical Journal, 2017-05)
      The effect of celebrity diagnosis on public awareness of health conditions has already been well documented. In October 2014, Bono, the lead singer with U2, revealed publicly for the first time that he has glaucoma. This study aimed to analyze the impact of Bono’s announcement on public awareness of glaucoma using Google Search trends as an indicator of public interest in the disease. Google Trends was used to examine Google Search activity for the term ‘Glaucoma’ between 2009 and 2015 in both Ireland and the United Kingdom. Trend analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel Version 14.3.5. Increased Google Search activity for ‘Glaucoma’ in October 2014 was found in both Ireland and the United Kingdom. A five-fold increase from the mean Google Search activity for this term was found in Ireland and a two-fold increase from the mean Google Search activity for this term was found in the United Kingdom. No such increase in Google Search activity occurred during each country’s 2014 Glaucoma Awareness week. Google Trends is useful in medical research as a means of assessing public awareness of, and/or interest in, health related topics. Current approaches to glaucoma related health promotion in both Ireland and the United Kingdom have failed to yield an increase in on-line Google Search activity. While there was an increase in interest in glaucoma it is unclear whether this led to an increase in health seeking behaviour.
    • Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia in a newborn: immediate response to lidocaine.

      Allen, Nicholas M; Azam, Muhammad; Dunne, Kevin P; Walsh, Kevin P; Department of Paediatrics, Galway University Hospital, Newcastle Road, Galway,, Ireland. nicholasallen@physicians.ie (2012-01-31)
    • Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

      Chan, Jeffrey C Y; Ong, Joshua C Y; Avalos, Gloria; Regan, Padraic J; McCann, Jack; Groarke, AnnMarie; Kelly, John L; Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway, Newcastle Road, Galway, Ireland. chancy@eircom.net (2009-07)
      Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.
    • The impact of new diagnostic criteria on prevalence of gestational diabetes in Ireland

      O Sullivan, E; Avalos, G; O Reilly, M (Irish Journal of Medical Science, 2010)
    • Impact of New UK Paracetamol overdose guidelines on patients presenting to the emergency department

      Nfila, G; Lee, S; Binchy, J (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2014-02)
      Paracetamol is involved in a large proportion of overdoses that present to the Emergency Department (ED), either as lone or mixed overdoses. Non-treatment of toxic levels can lead to fulminant liver failure. This study is to determine the impact the new UK treatment guidelines 1 will have on patients presenting with paracetamol overdose. A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had paracetamol levels done in the ED between September 2011 and August 2012. A total of 523 patients were identified, 95(18%) of whom had detectable paracetamol levels. 74 patients from the 95 were evaluated. 18(24%) patients were treated with N-acetylcysteine as per the then paracetamol overdose guidelines. Using the new guidelines would have resulted in 3 more patients being admitted. Our study shows that most patients who present following paracetamol overdose do not require treatment with N-acetylcysteine and suggests that the introduction of the new UK treatment guidelines is likely to result in only a small increase in the number of patients requiring treatment.
    • The impact of Oncotype DX testing on breast cancer management and chemotherapy prescribing patterns in a tertiary referral centre

      McVeigh, Terri Patricia; Hughes, Lauren M.; Miller, Nicola; Sheehan, Margaret; Keane, Maccon; Sweeney, Karl J.; Kerin, Michael J. (European Journal of Cancer, 2014-09)