• Circulating CD36 Is Reduced in HNF1A-MODY Carriers.

      Bacon, Siobhan; Kyithar, Ma P; Schmid, Jasmin; Costa Pozza, Andre; Handberg, Aase; Byrne, Maria M; Department of Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2013)
      Premature atherosclerosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) accounts for approximately 2% of all diabetes, with mutations in the transcription factor; hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) accounting for the majority of MODY cases. There is somewhat limited data available on the prevalence of macrovascular disease in HNF1A-MODY carriers with diabetes. Marked insulin resistance and the associated dyslipidaemia are not clinical features of HNF1A-MODY carriers. The scavenger protein CD36 has been shown to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, largely through its interaction with oxidised LDL. Higher levels of monocyte CD36 and plasma CD36(sCD36) are seen to cluster with insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine levels of sCD36 in participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes and to compare them with unaffected normoglycaemic family members and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    • Fasting plasma glucose as initial screening for diabetes and prediabetes in irish adults: The Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular health initiative (DMVhi).

      Sinnott, M; Kinsley, BT; Jackson, AD; Walsh, C; O'Grady, T; Nolan, JJ; Gaffney, P; Boran, G; Kelleher, C; Carr, B; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS One), 2015-04-15)
      Objective Type 2 diabetes has a long pre clinical asymptomatic phase. Early detection may delay or arrest disease progression. The Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular health initiative (DMVhi) was initiated as a prospective longitudinal cohort study on the prevalence of undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of Irish adults aged 45-75 years. Research Design and Methods Members of the largest Irish private health insurance provider aged 45 to 75 years were invited to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria: already diagnosed with diabetes or taking oral hypoglycaemic agents. Participants completed a detailed medical questionnaire, had weight, height, waist and hip circumference and blood pressure measured. Fasting blood samples were taken for fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Those with FPG in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) range had a 75gm oral glucose tolerance test performed. Results 122,531 subjects were invited to participate. 29,144 (24%) completed the study. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 1.8%, of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 7.1% and of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 2.9%. Dysglycaemia increased among those aged 45-54, 55-64 and 65-75 years in both males (10.6%, 18.5%, 21.7% respectively) and females (4.3%, 8.6%, 10.9% respectively). Undiagnosed T2D, IFG and IGT were all associated with gender, age, blood pressure, BMI, abdominal obesity, family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels. Using FPG as initial screening may underestimate the prevalence of T2D in the study population. Conclusions This study is the largest screening study for diabetes and prediabetes in the Irish population. Follow up of this cohort will provide data on progression to diabetes and on cardiovascular outcomes.
    • Suitability and repeatability of a photostress recovery test device, the macular test device, macular degeneration TEST DEVICE, detector (MDD-2), for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy assessment

      Loughman, James; Ratzlaff, Matthew; Foerg, Brittany; Connell, Paul; *Department of Optometry, School of Physics, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland; †African Vision Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa; and ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2013-10-16)
      Diabetic retinopathy can result in impaired photostress recovery time despite normal visual acuity and fundoscopic appearance. The Macular Degeneration Detector (MDD-2) is a novel flash photostress recovery time device. In this study, we examine the repeatability of the MDD-2 in normal and diabetic subjects.