• Maximizing outcomes in genitourinary cancers across the treatment continuum.

      Fitzpatrick, John M; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Dreicer, Robert; Fleshner, Neil E; Logothetis, Christopher J; Moul, Judd W; Tombal, Bertrand; Zlotta, Alexandre; Department of Surgery, Mater Misericordiae Hospital and University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. (2011-04)
      Key controversies concerning the management of genitourinary cancers across the treatment continua were discussed at the second annual Interactive Genitourinary Cancer Conference (IGUCC) held in February 2010 in Athens, Greece. Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer among western men and prevention strategies are needed. Trials evaluating 5α-reductase inhibitors have reported beneficial and clinically meaningful results, but uptake remains low for primary prostate cancer prevention. Prostate cancer detection programmes are also important as curative treatments for advanced disease are unavailable. Two large landmark randomized controlled trials reported conflicting results concerning screening efficacy and uncovered high levels of over-diagnosis and potential over-treatment. Tailored management strategies after diagnosis are important and predictive markers that distinguish between aggressive and indolent tumours are needed. The majority of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer are clinically localized. Active surveillance of favourable risk patients may be beneficial in the intermediate term, while an integrated approach of multi-modality therapy in patients with adverse features is recommended. The benefits of new technologies such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and robotic prostatectomy have not been established in prospective randomized trials vs current standards of care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to evolving the management of advanced prostate cancer into a chronic disease paradigm. Docetaxel plus prednisone is the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but the optimal timing of chemotherapy initiation has not been addressed in randomized clinical trials. Retrospective analyses suggest that asymptomatic patients with adverse prognostic factors for survival may also benefit from receiving chemotherapy. Bladder cancer is a common malignancy and the most expensive cancer per patient. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a heterogenous disease that requires dynamic multidisciplinary management. Aggressive early intervention may be beneficial in some cases. Platinum-based therapies represent the first-line standard of care for advanced bladder cancer, but the maximum benefit may have been reached for conventional chemotherapies and new strategies are needed. Several ongoing clinical trials are assessing combination chemotherapy and targeted therapy.
    • Occlusive ascending aorta and arch atheroma treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and thromboendarterectomy.

      O' Sullivan, Katie E; Early, Sarah A; Lawler, Leo; Hurley, John; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2013-12)
      We describe an uncommon presentation of severely advanced aortic atherosclerosis in a 48-year old man with a history of hypertension and heavy smoking. Initial presentation with upper limb ischaemia led to the diagnosis of an aortic arch atheroma occluding 90% of the aortic lumen, managed with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and aortic thromboendarterectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in aortic occlusion and requiring emergent operative intervention.
    • Radiotherapy and breast reconstruction: a meta-analysis.

      Barry, M; Kell, M R; Department of Breast Surgery, BreastCheck, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2011-05)
      The optimum sequencing of breast reconstruction (BR) in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is controversial. A comprehensive search of published studies that examined postoperative morbidity following immediate or delayed BR with combined radiotherapy was performed. Medical (MEDLINE & EMBASE) databases were searched and cross-referenced for appropriate studies where morbidity following BR was the primary outcome measured. A total of 1,105 patients were identified from 11 appropriately selected studies. Patients undergoing PMRT and BR are more likely to suffer morbidity compared with patients not receiving PMRT (OR = 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4-7.2 [no PMRT vs. PMRT]). Reconstruction technique was also examined with outcome when PMRT was delivered after BR, and this demonstrated that autologous reconstruction is associated with less morbidity in this setting (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.1-0.4 [autologous vs. implant-based]). Delaying BR until after PMRT had no significant effect on outcome (OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.47-1.62 [delayed vs. immediate]). PMRT has a detrimental effect on BR outcome. These results suggest that where immediate reconstruction is undertaken with the necessity of PMRT, an autologous flap results in less morbidity when compared with implant-based reconstruction.
    • Segmental fracture of the lumbar spine.

      O'hEireamhoin, Sven; Devitt, Brian; Baker, Joseph; Kiely, Paul; Synnott, Keith; Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. svenerwin@hotmail.com (2010-10-01)
      A case report is presented.
    • Sunitinib in urothelial cancer: clinical, pharmacokinetic, and immunohistochemical study of predictors of response.

      Gallagher, David J; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Gerst, Scott R; Regazzi, Ashley; Garcia-Grossman, Ilana; Riches, Jamie; Gounder, Sivaraman K; Flaherty, Anne-Marie; Trout, Alisa; et al. (2012-02-01)
      BACKGROUND: Sunitinib has activity in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer (UC), but most patients do not respond. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of response to sunitinib. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven patients with advanced UC received sunitinib on one of two schedules at a single institution. Blood pressure (BP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and pharmacokinetic (PK) results were correlated with response to sunitinib. MEASUREMENTS: BP was assessed on day 1 and 28 of each cycle and on day 14 of cycle 1. IHC was performed on 55 samples from 38 cases using mammalian target of rapamycin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway marker antibodies. Blood samples for PK analysis were collected from 15 patients at three time points. Response was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sunitinib-induced hypertension predicted improved response when hypertension was categorized as a discrete (p = 0.02) or continuous variable (p = 0.005 [systolic BP] and p = 0.007 [diastolic BP]). The odds ratio of response was 12.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.95-246.8) for grade 3/4 hypertension compared with grade 0. Response was associated with low HIF-1alpha expression in primary (p = 0.07) tissue. A nonstatistically significant trend was seen for an association between greater drug concentration and best response. A correlation between expression markers within the same pathways was identified, phosphorylated-4EBP1 and phosphorylated-S6 (p = 6.5 x 10(-9)), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and HIF-1alpha (p = 0.008). Results are limited by small numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and molecular biomarkers of response to sunitinib may have clinical relevance and require prospective validation. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers to guide the management of UC.
    • Technique of extracting a compression intramedullary nail that preserves knee arthrodesis.

      Murphy, Terence P; Mulhall, Kevin J; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. terencepmurphy@gmail.com (2011-06)