• The association of maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis with fetal adiposity and birthweight.

      Walsh, Jennifer M; Mahony, Rhona; Byrne, Jacinta; Foley, Michael; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. jennifer.walsh@ucd.ie (European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 2011-12)
      To examine the association between maternal and fetal glucose levels and fetal adiposity and infant birthweight.
    • Ethnic variation between white European women in labour outcomes in a setting in which the management of labour is standardised-a healthy migrant effect?

      Walsh, J; Mahony, R; Armstrong, F; Ryan, G; O'Herlihy, C; Foley, M; UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. jennifer.walsh@ucd.ie (BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 2011-05)
      To test the hypothesis that women from Eastern European countries have lower caesarean delivery rates and higher spontaneous labour rates relative to Irish women in a setting in which the management of labour is standardised.
    • Fetal and maternal leptin in pre-gestational diabetic pregnancy.

      Higgins, Mary F; Russell, Noirin M; Brazil, Derek P; Firth, Richard G; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; UCD Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2013-02)
      To compare maternal and fetal leptin among women without diabetes, women with type 1 diabetes, and women with type 2 diabetes.
    • Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

      Donnelly, Jean M; Lindsay, Karen L; Walsh, Jennifer M; Horan, Mary; Molloy, Eleanor J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.
    • Ghrelin concentrations in maternal and cord blood of type 1 diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies at term.

      Hehir, Mark P; Laursen, Henriette; Higgins, Mary F; Brennan, Donal J; O'Connor, Darran P; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; UCD Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland. markhehir23@gmail.com (Springer, 2013-02)
    • Identification of those most likely to benefit from a low-glycaemic index dietary intervention in pregnancy.

      Walsh, Jennifer M; Mahony, Rhona M; Canty, Gillian; Foley, Michael E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; UCD Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital,Dublin,Republic of Ireland. (2014-08-28)
      The present study is a secondary analysis of the ROLO study, a randomised control trial of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy to prevent the recurrence of fetal macrosomia. The objectives of the present study were to identify which women are most likely to respond to a low-GI dietary intervention in pregnancy with respect to three outcome measures: birth weight; maternal glucose intolerance; gestational weight gain (GWG). In early pregnancy, 372 women had their mid-upper arm circumference recorded and BMI calculated. Concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. At delivery, infant birth weight was recorded and fetal glucose, C-peptide and leptin concentrations were measured in the cord blood. Women who benefited in terms of infant birth weight were shorter, with a lower education level. Those who maintained weight gain within the GWG guidelines were less overweight in both their first and second pregnancies, with no difference being observed in maternal height. Women who at 28 weeks of gestation developed glucose intolerance, despite the low-GI diet, had a higher BMI and higher glucose concentrations in early pregnancy with more insulin resistance. They also had significantly higher-interval pregnancy weight gain. For each analysis, women who responded to the intervention had lower leptin concentrations in early pregnancy than those who did not. These findings suggest that the maternal metabolic environment in early pregnancy is important in determining later risks of excessive weight gain and metabolic disturbance, whereas birth weight is mediated more by genetic factors. It highlights key areas, which warrant further interrogation before future pregnancy intervention studies, in particular, maternal education level and inter-pregnancy weight gain.
    • Interpregnancy weight changes and impact on pregnancy outcome in a cohort of women with a macrosomic first delivery: a prospective longitudinal study.

      Crosby, David A; Walsh, Jennifer M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. CSTAR, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2017-06-06)
      To determine the median interpregnancy maternal weight change between first and second pregnancies, and second and third pregnancies and to assess the impact of this weight change on pregnancy outcome in a cohort of women with a macrosomic first delivery.
    • Isolated acute non-cystic white matter injury in term infants presenting with neonatal encephalopathy.

      Barrett, Michael Joseph; Donoghue, Veronica; Mooney, Eoghan E; Slevin, Marie; Persaud, Thara; Twomey, Eilish; Ryan, Stephanie; Laffan, Eoghan; Twomey, Anne; Department of Neonatology, National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. mjjbarrett@hotmail.com (2013-03)
      We discuss possible aetiological factors, MRI evolution of injury and neuro-developmental outcomes of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Thirty-six consecutive infants diagnosed with NE were included. In this cohort, four infants (11%) were identified with injury predominantly in the deep white matter on MRI who were significantly of younger gestation, lower birthweight with higher Apgars at one and five minutes compared to controls. Placental high grade villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) was identified in all four of these infants. Our hypothesis states VUA may induce white matter injury by causing a local inflammatory response and/or oxidative stress during the perinatal period. We underline the importance of continued close and systematic evaluation of all cases of NE, including examination of the placenta, in order to come to a better understanding of the clinical presentation, the patterns of brain injury and the underlying pathophysiological processes.
    • Maternal and fetal placental growth hormone and IGF axis in type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

      Higgins, Mary F; Russell, Noirin E; Crossey, Paul A; Nyhan, Kristine C; Brazil, Derek P; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; UCD Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2012)
      Placental growth hormone (PGH) is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND) compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM) pregnancies.
    • Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.

      Walsh, Jennifer M; Kandamany, Nandini; Ni Shuibhne, Niamh; Power, Helen; Murphy, John F; O'Herlihy, Colm; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. jennifer.walsh@ucd.ie (2011-04)
      We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.
    • Placental cord insertion and birthweight discordance in twin pregnancies: results of the national prospective ESPRiT Study.

      Kent, Etaoin M; Breathnach, Fionnuala M; Gillan, John E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael P; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; et al. (American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 2011-10)
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of noncentral placental cord insertion on birthweight discordance in twins.
    • Placental pathology, birthweight discordance, and growth restriction in twin pregnancy: results of the ESPRiT Study.

      Kent, Etaoin M; Breathnach, Fionnuala M; Gillan, John E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael P; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; et al. (American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 2012-09)
      We sought to evaluate the association between placental histological abnormalities and birthweight discordance and growth restriction in twin pregnancies.
    • A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of macrosomia.

      Walsh, Jennifer; Mahony, Rhona; Foley, Michael; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Dublin National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. jennifer.walsh@ucd.ie (2010)
      Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 12. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3.
    • Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

      Noone, D; Kieran, E; Molloy, E J; Department of Paediatrics, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. dgnoone@gmail.com (2012)
      Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.
    • Troponin T, N-terminal pro natriuretic peptide and a patent ductus arteriosus scoring system predict death before discharge or neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years in preterm infants.

      El-Khuffash, Afif F; Slevin, Marie; McNamara, Patrick J; Molloy, Eleanor J; Department of Neonatology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. afif_faisal@hotmail.com (Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition, 2011-03)
      There is little consensus regarding the use of echocardiography in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treatment in preterm infants. The use of troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal Pro-BNP (NTpBNP) in combination with echocardiography assessment may facilitate the development of a superior predictive model.
    • Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

      McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon; Donoghue, V; Murphy, J F A; Department of Neonatology, The National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. lmccarthy@nmh.ie (2011-07)
      To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).
    • Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

      Feeley, L; Mooney, E E; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2010)
      Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.