• The association between TNF-α and insulin resistance in euglycemic women.

      Walsh, Jennifer M; McGowan, Ciara A; Byrne, Jacinta A; Rath, Ann; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; UCD Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Ireland; National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address: msjenniferwalsh@gmail.com. (2013-10)
      Chronic low levels of inflammation have links to obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. We sought to assess the relationship between cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and insulin resistance in a healthy, euglycemic population. This is a prospective study of 574 non-diabetic mother and infant pairs. Maternal body mass index (BMI), TNF-α, glucose and insulin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA index. At delivery birthweight was recorded and cord blood analysed for fetal C-peptide and TNF-α. In a multivariate model, maternal TNF-α in early pregnancy was predicted by maternal insulin resistance at the same time-point, (β=0.54, p<0.01), and maternal TNF-α at 28 weeks was predicted by maternal insulin resistance in early pregnancy (β=0.24, p<0.01) and at 28 weeks (β=0.39, p<0.01). These results, in a large cohort of healthy, non-diabetic women have shown that insulin resistance, even at levels below those diagnostic of gestational diabetes, is associated with maternal and fetal inflammatory response. These findings have important implications for defining the pathways of fetal programming of later metabolic syndrome and childhood obesity.
    • Caffeine therapy in neonatal intensive care.

      Vavasseur, C (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2012-03)
    • Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

      Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E (2016)
      Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.
    • Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

      Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M (MDPI AG, 2016-01-04)
      Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.
    • Parents' attitudes towards infant safety during air travel.

      Bahari, M; Prunty, N; Molloy, E J (2011-07)