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Maternal and fetal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy.Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a leptin-regulated anorectic neuropeptide. Increased levels of leptin in cord blood of diabetic mothers have previously been described. The aim of this study was to quantify maternal and fetal serum CART levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, n = 10) and non-diabetic pregnancy (n = 10). Matched maternal serum samples (n = 20) were obtained at 36-weeks gestation and cord samples from the umbilical vein at delivery (n = 20), CART was quantified using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearmans correlation and t test. There was no difference in maternal CART levels at 36-weeks gestation between T1DM (mean = 331.13 pg/ml, Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) = 114.54) and non-diabetic pregnancy (mean = 195.01 pg/ml SEM = 29.37) (p = 0.106). Fetal CART levels in the umbilical vein were similar in T1DM (mean = 199.27 pg/ml, SEM = 39.81) and non-diabetic pregnancy (mean = 149.76 pg/ml, SEM = 26.08) (p = 0.143). Maternal serum CART levels measured at 36-weeks gestation correlated with maternal BMI at booking (Spearmans ρ = 0.332) (p = 0.001) irrespective of diabetes. Serum CART can be detected in both diabetic and non-diabetic human pregnancy and may play an important role in body mass regulation in pregnancy.