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The impact of diet, body composition, and physical activity on child bone mineral density at five years of age-findings from the ROLO Kids Study.Bone health is extremely important in early childhood because children with low bone mineral density (BMD) are at a greater risk of bone fractures. While physical activity and intake of both calcium and vitamin D benefit BMD in older children, there is limited research on the determinants of good bone health in early childhood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of diet, physical activity, and body composition on BMD at five years of age. Dietary intakes and physical activity levels were measured through questionnaires. Whole body BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 102 children. Child weight, height, circumferences, skinfolds and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were assessed. There was no association between BMD and dietary calcium, dietary vitamin D, 25OHD, physical activity, or sedentary behaviour. Several measures of body composition were significantly positively associated with BMD; however, neither fat mass nor lean body mass was associated with BMD.Conclusion: Although we found no association between self-reported dietary and lifestyle factors and bone health in early years, increased body size was linked with higher BMD. These findings are important as identifying modifiable factors that can improve bone health at a young age is of utmost importance.What is Known:• Bone health is extremely important in early childhood, as children with low bone mineral density (BMD) are at greater risk of bone fractures.• Physical activity has been found to be beneficial for bone health in adolescents, and body composition has also been associated with BMD in teenage years.• Limited research on the determinants of good bone health in early childhood.What is New:• No association between self-reported lifestyle and dietary factors with bone health in early childhood.• Increased body size was associated with higher BMD at five years of age.