• The impact of new national guidelines on screening for gestational Diabetes Mellitus

      Ali, FM; Farah, N; O’Dwyer, V; O’Connor, C; Kennelly, MM; Turner, MJ (Irish Medical Journal, 2013-02)
      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has important maternal and fetal implications. In 2010, the Health Service Executive published guidelines on GDM. We examined the impact of the new guidelines in a large maternity unit. In January 2011, the hospital replaced the 100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) with the new 75g OGTT. We compared the first 6 months of 2011 with the first 6 months of 2010. The new guidelines were associated with a 22% increase in women screened from 1375 in 2010 to 1679 in 2011 (p<0.001). Of the women screened, the number diagnosed with GDM increased from 10.1% (n=139) to 13.2% (n=221) (p<0.001).The combination of increased screening and a more sensitive OGTT resulted in the number of women diagnosed with GDM increasing 59% from 139 to 221 (p=0.02).This large increase has important resource implications but, if clinical outcomes are improved, there should be a decrease in long-term costs.
    • A national survey of implementation of guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus

      O’Higgins, A; Dunne, F; Lee, B; Smith, D; Turner, MJ (Irish Medical Journal, 2014-09)
      In 2010, national guidelines for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were published by the Health Service Executive (HSE). In 2012, a questionnaire was distributed to all maternity units to survey implementation of the guidelines. All units screened women for GDM, but used different screening tests with fifteen units (79%) using the recommended 75g OGTT, three units (16%) using a 100g OGTT and one unit (5%) using a 50g glucose challenge test. Optimal outcomes are best achieved through multidisciplinary diabetes-obstetric care and this was available in nine of the units (47%). The prevalence of GDM varied from 2.2 â 7.4%. Insulin usage varied from 15-56%. Six centres (31%) had not implemented the national guidelines in full because of lack of resources. Despite national endorsement of the guideline, significant variations remain in implementation. This may lead to differences in clinical outcomes depending on where a woman attends for obstetric care.
    • Screening For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Selectively in a University Maternity Hospital

      O’Malley, EG; O’Duill, M; McArdle, C; Kennedy, RAK; Reynolds, CM; Turner, MJ (Irish Medical Journal, 2018-06)
      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the commonest complications of pregnancy. The prevalence varies depending, for example, on the diagnostic criteria, the screening test used, laboratory standards and the population studied. However, the prevalence is increasing globally due to the increasing levels of maternal obesity. The detection of GDM is important because there are clinical consequences. The woman has an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life. Up to 70% of those women with GDM develop T2DM by 28 years after the affected pregnancy2. In a pregnancy complicated by GDM there is an increased risk of fetal macrosomia and polyhydramnios due to fetal hyperglycaemia3. This is associated with an increased risk of shoulder dystocia and caesarean delivery4. Neonatal hypoglycaemia may develop due to increased insulin production secondary to intrauterine hyperglycaemia. The offspring also have an increased risk in their childhood and adult life for the development of diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome5.