• An audit of caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies.

      Khalifeh, A; Farah, N; Turner, M; UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Coombe Women and Infants University, Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2012-02-01)
      This study reviewed caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies in a tertiary referral maternity hospital. Maternal and neonatal complications were recorded and classified according to uterine incision type. We reviewed medical records of 89 women over a period of 2 years. The indication for the caesarean section influenced the type of uterine incision made (p = 0.004). Women who had antepartum haemorrhage were more likely to need a vertical incision. There was also a higher incidence of vertical incisions for gestations <28 weeks (p = 0.029). Surprisingly, when the computerised discharge summaries were reviewed retrospectively, all the vertical uterine incisions were recorded as lower segment caesarean sections. This would have a clinical impact on those women in future pregnancies, especially in a highly mobile population.
    • Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Among 33-35 Weeks' Gestational Age Infants Born During Multiple Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasons.

      Anderson, Evan J; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Blanken, Maarten; Lanari, Marcello; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; Rodgers-Gray, Barry; Fullarton, John; Rouffiac, Elisabeth; Vo, Pamela; Notario, Gerard; et al. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2017-02)
      Moderate-late preterm infants, 33-35 weeks' gestational age (wGA), are at increased risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH). The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of RSVH in moderate-late preterm infants.
    • A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

      O'Shea, Joyce; Dempsey, Eugene M; Department of Newborn Medicine, Coombe Women's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2012-02-01)
      Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.
    • Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

      Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J; UCD Centre for Human Reproduction, Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. ekent@rcsi.ie (2013-01)
      To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
    • Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

      Farah, Nadine; Hogan, Andrew E; O'Connor, Norah; Kennelly, Mairead M; O'Shea, Donal; Turner, Michael J; UCD Centre for Human Reproduction, Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. drnfarah@gmail.com (2012-10)
      Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.
    • Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

      Cleary, Brian J; Butt, Hajeera; Strawbridge, Judith D; Gallagher, Paul J; Fahey, Tom; Murphy, Deirdre J; Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland., bcleary@coombe.ie (2012-02-01)
      PURPOSE: To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). RESULTS: Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.
    • Prospective risk of fetal death in uncomplicated monochorionic twins.

      Farah, Nadine; Hogan, Jennifer; Johnson, Sucheta; Stuart, Bernard; Daly, Sean; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin. nadine.farah@ucd.ie (2012-03)
      A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a university teaching hospital to determine the prospective risk of unexpected fetal death in uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after viability. All MCDA twins delivered at or after 24 weeks' gestation from July 1999 to July 2007 were included. Pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, growth restriction, structural abnormalities, or twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence were excluded. Of the 144 MCDA twin pregnancies included in our analysis, the risk of intrauterine death was 4.9%. The prospective risk of unexpected intrauterine death was 1 in 43 after 32 weeks' gestation and 1 in 37 after 34 weeks' gestation. Our results demonstrate that despite close surveillance, the unexpected intrauterine death rate in uncomplicated MCDA twin pregnancies is high. This rate seems to increase after 34 weeks' gestation, suggesting that a policy of elective preterm delivery warrants evaluation.
    • Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

      Miletin, J; Pichova, K; Doyle, S; Dempsey, E M; Department of Paediatrics and Newborn Medicine, Coombe Women and Infants, University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. miletinj@yahoo.com (2012-02-01)
      OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.
    • Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

      McGinty, Patricia; Farah, Nadine; Dwyer, Vicky O; Hogan, Jennifer; Reilly, Amanda; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M; Ultrasound and Fetal Medicine Centre, Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2012-07)
      The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks' gestation.