• Implementation of guidelines on oxytocin use at caesarean section: a survey of practice in Great Britain and Ireland.

      Sheehan, Sharon R; Wedisinghe, Lilantha; Macleod, Maureen; Murphy, Deirdre J; Academic Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Coombe Women and Infants, University Hospital & Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin 8, Ireland., sharon.sheehan@tcd.ie (2012-02-01)
      OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations on women worldwide. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. Various clinical guidelines address oxytocin use at the time of caesarean section. We previously reported wide variation in practice amongst clinicians in the United Kingdom in the use of oxytocin at caesarean section. The aim of this current study was to determine whether the variation in approach is universal across the individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland and whether this reflects differences in interpretation and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a survey of practice in the five individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland. A postal questionnaire was sent to all lead consultant obstetricians and anaesthetists with responsibility for the labour ward. We explored the use of oxytocin bolus and infusion, the measurement of blood loss at caesarean section and the rates of major haemorrhage. Existing clinical guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) and ALSO (Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics) were used to benchmark reported practice against recommended practice for the management of blood loss at caesarean section. RESULTS: The response rate was 82% (391 respondents). Use of a 5 IU oxytocin bolus was reported by 346 respondents (85-95% for individual countries). In some countries, up to 14% used a 10 IU oxytocin bolus despite recommendations against this. Routine use of an oxytocin infusion varied greatly between countries (11% lowest-55% highest). Marked variations in choice of oxytocin regimens were noted with inconsistencies in the country-specific recommendations, e.g. NICE (which covers England and Wales) recommends a 30 IU oxytocin infusion over 4h, but only 122 clinicians (40%) used this. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians' approach to the use of oxytocin at the time of caesarean delivery varies between countries. Even in countries with on-site visits to ensure guideline implementation (e.g. Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts in England), deviations from guideline recommendations exist. These variations may reflect a lack of robust evidence and the need for future research in this area.
    • Parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

      Hopewell, J; Miletin, J; Department of Neonatology, Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dolphin's Barn, Dublin 8. (2012-02)
      Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in providing nutrients for infants unable to tolerate enteral feeds study was to look at PN prescribing in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Ireland, in particular in infants < 1.5 kg. A postal questionnaire was administered to the 235 neonatal units. The response rate was 179 (76%), of which 136 (76%) used PN. The initial amount of protein prescribed was 0.1-2 g/kg/day in 102 units (91%), >2 g/kg/day in 4 (4%) and 5 (5%) used no protein. 88 (80%) started lipids with the first PN prescription. Only 5 units (5%) started with >1 g/kg/day. The maximum dose of lipids and protein both varied from 2 - >4 g/kg/day. The initial glucose infusion rate was 4-8 mg/kg/min. Interestingly only 44% of units started PN in the first 24 hours of age. Hence results show great variation in PN prescribing.
    • Prevention of thrombosis in pregnancy: how practical are consensus derived clinical practice guidelines?

      Hayes-Ryan, D; Byrne, B M; RCSI Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital (CWIUH), Dublin, Ireland. (2012-11)
      Thromboembolic disease (TED) has, for many years, consistently been identified as one of the leading causes of direct maternal mortality. In November 2009, the RCOG published a guideline on the prevention of TED that has been rapidly adopted by hospital trusts in the UK. The aim of our study was to determine the number and profile of women in our population that would require treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and the cost implications of such treatment if these guidelines were implemented. A retrospective review of the first 100 women who delivered at the Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital (CWIUH) in 2010 was conducted and risk stratification applied at the relevant time points. A total of 51% were deemed to be at intermediate or high risk of TED at some point during pregnancy. In 35 of the 51 women (70%), this risk was attributable to factors such as age>35 years, parity≥3, BMI>30 kg/m2 or cigarette smoking. In our obstetric population, the percentage of women with these risk factors was: 25.5%, 8.5%, 19% and 16.7%, respectively. Implementation of this guideline would increase the hospital annual expenditure on LMWH by a factor of 17. The strategy of attributing risk by accumulating factors that individually have a low risk of TED and are prevalent in the population needs to be re-visited. The cost of implementation of these guidelines is not inconsiderable in the absence of data to indicate that clinical outcome is improved with their implementation.
    • Strategies to enhance assessment of the fetal head position before instrumental delivery: a survey of obstetric practice in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

      Ramphul, Meenakshi; O'Brien, Yvonne; Murphy, Deirdre J; Academic Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Trinity College Dublin & Coombe Women & Infant's University Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. ramphulm@tcd.ie (2012-12)
      To establish the current practice of obstetricians with regard to assessment of women in labour before instrumental delivery.
    • Understanding Women's Differing Experiences of Distress after Colposcopy: A Qualitative Interview Study.

      O'Connor, Mairead; Waller, Jo; Gallagher, Pamela; Martin, Cara M; O'Leary, John J; D'Arcy, Tom; Prendiville, Walter; Flannelly, Grainne; Sharp, Linda (Elsevier, 2015)
      Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women's differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.