Recent Submissions

  • Halloysite- and Montmorillonite-Loaded Scaffolds as Enhancers of Chronic Wound Healing.

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Faccendini, Angela; Longo, Marysol; Ruggeri, Marco; Rossi, Silvia; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Miele, Dalila; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Aguzzi, Carola; Viseras, Cesar; et al. (2020-02-20)
  • A novel repetitive head impact exposure measurement tool differentiates player position in National Football League.

    Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D (2020-01-28)
    American-style football participation poses a high risk of repetitive head impact (RHI) exposure leading to acute and chronic brain injury. The complex nature of symptom expression, human predisposition, and neurological consequences of RHI limits our understanding of what constitutes as an injurious impact affecting the integrity of brain tissue. Video footage of professional football games was reviewed and documentation made of all head contact. Frequency of impact, tissue strain magnitude, and time interval between impacts was used to quantify RHI exposure, specific to player field position. Differences in exposure characteristics were found between eight different positions; where three unique profiles can be observed. Exposure profiles provide interpretation of the relationship between the traumatic event(s) and how tissue injury is manifested and expressed. This study illustrates and captures an objective measurement of RHI on the field, a critical component in guiding public policy and guidelines for managing exposure.
  • Modeling workflows: Identifying the most predictive features in healthcare operational processes.

    Crowley, Colm; Guitron, Steven; Son, Joseph; Pianykh, Oleg S (2020-06-11)
  • Enable, Reconnect and Augment: A New ERA of Virtual Nature Research and Application.

    Litleskare, Sigbjørn; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; Calogiuri, Giovanna (2020-03-06)
  • The Effect of Metabolic Surgery on the Complications of Diabetes: What Are the Unanswered Questions?

    Neff, Karl J; le Roux, Carel W (2020-05-29)
    t is now established that metabolic surgery (also known as bariatric surgery or obesity surgery) is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. Data from several randomized controlled trials have shown that surgery, when used as an adjunct to best medical therapy, is superior to medical therapy alone in achieving glycaemic and metabolic treatment targets in diabetes care. This has resulting in metabolic surgery being recommended as a treatment option for obesity-associated type 2 diabetes in national and international diabetes care guidelines. While the superior glycaemic effect of surgery is clear, the effect of surgery on the complications of diabetes is not fully understood. There are observational and epidemiological data that indicate a preventative effect in cohorts who do not have complications at baseline, as well as a positive effect on those with established diabetic kidney disease. However, there is a dearth of randomized controlled studies that specifically examine the effect of surgery on the complications of diabetes. Therefore, we should remain cautious in some cases, especially in those with retinopathy or neuropathy, as there is potential for deterioration of disease post-operatively. Further study is needed on this important topic. A lot is known, but there remain several unanswered questions. This article summarizes what we know about the effect of metabolic surgery on the complications of diabetes, poses some unanswered questions, and suggests how we could answer them.
  • Association of ionizing radiation dose from common medical diagnostic procedures and lymphoma risk in the Epilymph case-control study.

    Pasqual, Elisa; Turner, Michelle C; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Casabonne, Delphine; Benavente, Yolanda; Chef, Isabelle Thierry; Maynadié, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Staines, Anthony; Foretova, Lenka; et al. (2020-07-10)
  • Glial A Adenosine Receptors Modulate Abnormal Tachykininergic Responses and Prevent Enteric Inflammation Associated with High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    D'Antongiovanni, Vanessa; Benvenuti, Laura; Fornai, Matteo; Pellegrini, Carolina; van den Wijngaard, Renè; Cerantola, Silvia; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Caputi, Valentina; Colucci, Rocchina; Haskó, Gyorgy; et al. (2020-05-18)
    The role played by adenosine A2B receptors (A2BRs) in the regulation of enteric glial cell (EGC) functions remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of A2BRs in the control of EGC functions in a model of obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed with standard diet (SD) or high fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks. Colonic tachykininergic contractions were recorded in the presence of BAY60-6583 (A2BRs agonist), MRS1754 (A2BRs antagonist), and the gliotoxin fluorocitrate. Immunofluorescence distribution of HuC/D, S100β, and A2BRs was assessed in whole mount preparations of colonic myenteric plexus. To mimic HFD, EGCs were incubated in vitro with palmitate (PA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the absence or in the presence of A2BR ligands. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed by Western blot analysis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), substance P (SP), and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) release were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. MRS1754 enhanced electrically evoked tachykininergic contractions of colonic preparations from HFD mice. BAY60-6583 decreased the evoked tachykininergic contractions, with higher efficacy in HFD mice. Such effects were blunted upon incubation with fluorocitrate. In in vitro experiments on EGCs, PA and LPS increased TLR4 expression as well as IL-1β, GDNF, and SP release. Incubation with BAY60-6583 reduced TLR4 expression as well as IL-1β, GDNF, and SP release. Such effects were blunted by MRS1754. The present results suggest that A2BRs, expressed on EGCs, participate in the modulation of enteric inflammation and altered tachykininergic responses associated with obesity, thus representing a potential therapeutic target.
  • Synthesis and evaluation of novel chromanone and quinolinone analogues of uniflorol as anti-leishmanial agents.

    Castro, Helena; Cruz, Tânia; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; da Silva Cardoso, Paula; Alsaffar, Ahmed; Farrell, Patrick; Tomás, Ana M; Barlow, James W (2020-03-20)
    Within this work, we describe the design and synthesis of a range of novel chromanones and quinolinones, based on natural products reported to possess anti-leishmanial action. The core heterocycles were obtained either via classical or ionic liquid mediated Kabbe condensation in the case of chromanones, or aqueous Sonogashira based alkynylation followed by acid-catalysed cyclisation in the case of quinolinones. Upon testing in promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and Leishmania-infected macrophages, compound 13c was identified as displaying interesting activity, inhibiting axenic amastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with IC50s of 25.3 and 24.6μM respectively.
  • Potential Probiotic Yeasts Sourced from Natural Environmental and Spontaneous Processed Foods.

    Agarbati, Alice; Canonico, Laura; Marini, Enrica; Zannini, Emanuele; Ciani, Maurizio; Comitini, Francesca (2020-03-04)
    In the last decades, there has been a growing interest from consumers in their food choices. Organic, natural, less processed, functional, and pre-probiotic products were preferred. Although, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the most well-characterized probiotic yeast available on the market, improvement in probiotic function using other yeast species is an attractive future direction. In the present study, un-anthropized natural environments and spontaneous processed foods were exploited for wild yeast isolation with the goal of amplifying the knowledge of probiotic aptitudes of different yeast species. For this purpose, 179 yeast species were isolated, identified as belonging to twelve different genera, and characterized for the most important probiotic features. Findings showed interesting probiotic characteristics for some yeast strains belonging to Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia ziziphicola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Torulaspora delbrueckii species, although these probiotic aptitudes were strictly strain-dependent. These yeast strains could be proposed for different probiotic applications, such as a valid alternative to, or in combination with, the probiotic yeast S. cerevisiae var. boulardii.
  • Mini PCNL Over Standard PCNL: What Makes it Better?

    Thapa, Bikash Bikram; Niranjan, Vikram (2020-02-12)
  • Metastatic disease in head & neck oncology.

    Pisani, Paolo; Airoldi, Mario; Allais, Anastasia; Aluffi Valletti, Paolo; Battista, Mariapina; Benazzo, Marco; Briatore, Roberto; Cacciola, Salvatore; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Colombo, Andrea; et al. (2020-05-20)
  • Top Notch Targeting Strategies in Cancer: A Detailed Overview of Recent Insights and Current Perspectives.

    Moore, Gillian; Annett, Stephanie; McClements, Lana; Robson, Tracy (2020-06-20)
  • Dose response of the 16p11.2 distal copy number variant on intracranial volume and basal ganglia.

    Sønderby, Ida E; Gústafsson, Ómar; Doan, Nhat Trung; Hibar, Derrek P; Martin-Brevet, Sandra; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ames, David; Amunts, Katrin; Andersson, Michael; Armstrong, Nicola J; et al. (2018-10-03)
    Carriers of large recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) have a higher risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The 16p11.2 distal CNV predisposes carriers to e.g., autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We compared subcortical brain volumes of 12 16p11.2 distal deletion and 12 duplication carriers to 6882 non-carriers from the large-scale brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging collaboration, ENIGMA-CNV. After stringent CNV calling procedures, and standardized FreeSurfer image analysis, we found negative dose-response associations with copy number on intracranial volume and on regional caudate, pallidum and putamen volumes (β = -0.71 to -1.37; P < 0.0005). In an independent sample, consistent results were obtained, with significant effects in the pallidum (β = -0.95, P = 0.0042). The two data sets combined showed significant negative dose-response for the accumbens, caudate, pallidum, putamen and ICV (P = 0.0032, 8.9 × 10-6, 1.7 × 10-9, 3.5 × 10-12 and 1.0 × 10-4, respectively). Full scale IQ was lower in both deletion and duplication carriers compared to non-carriers. This is the first brain MRI study of the impact of the 16p11.2 distal CNV, and we demonstrate a specific effect on subcortical brain structures, suggesting a neuropathological pattern underlying the neurodevelopmental syndromes.
  • Persistent Effects of Musical Training on Mathematical Skills of Children With Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Santos, Flávia Heloísa (2020-01-10)
    Musical training (MT) is perceived as a multi-sensory program that simultaneously integrates visual, aural, oral, and kinesthetic senses. Furthermore, MT stimulates cognitive functions in a ludic way instead of tapping straight into the traditional context of school learning, including mathematics. Nevertheless, the efficacy of MT over mathematics remains understudied, especially concerning longstanding effects. For this reason, this longitudinal study explored the impact of MT on numerical cognition and abstract visual reasoning using a double-blind and quasi-experimental design. We assessed two groups of children from primary schools, namely one with developmental dyscalculia [DD; n = 22] and another comprising typically developing children [TD; n = 22], who concomitantly underwent MT. Numerical cognition measurement was carried out at four different time points: Baseline (pre-MT assessment), mid-test (after 7 weeks of MT), post-test (after 14 weeks of MT), and follow-up (10 weeks after the end of MT). Significant interactions were found between time and group for numerical cognition performance, in which the DD group showed higher scores in number comprehension, number production at mid-test, and calculation at post-test compared to baseline. A key finding was that number production, number comprehension, and calculation effects were time-resistant for the DD group since changes remained on follow-up. Moreover, no significant differences over time were found for abstract visual reasoning for both groups. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that MT appears to be a useful tool for compensatory remediation of DD.
  • Is participation in high-status culture a signal of trustworthiness?

    Aidenberger, Amelie; Rauhut, Heiko; Rössel, Jörg (2020-05-05)
  • Admission Decision-Making in Hospital Emergency Departments: The Role of the Accompanying Person.

    Rance, Susanna; Westlake, Debra; Brant, Heather; Holme, Ingrid; Endacott, Ruth; Pinkney, Jonathan; Byng, Richard (2020-06-18)
  • Development of a multivariable risk model integrating urinary cell DNA methylation and cell-free RNA data for the detection of significant prostate cancer.

    Connell, Shea P; O'Reilly, Eve; Tuzova, Alexandra; Webb, Martyn; Hurst, Rachel; Mills, Robert; Zhao, Fang; Bapat, Bharati; Cooper, Colin S; Perry, Antoinette S; et al. (2020-03-09)
  • Prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma Risk-associated Variants Within Lysyl Oxidase-like 1 in an Irish Population.

    Eivers, Sarah B; Greene, Alison G; Dervan, Edward; O'Brien, Colm; Wallace, Deborah (2020-06)

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