Recent Submissions

  • Diet influences the functions of the human intestinal microbiome.

    De Angelis, Maria; Ferrocino, Ilario; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Cavallo, Noemi; Siragusa, Sonya; Rampelli, Simone; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Vannini, Lucia; et al. (2020-03-06)
  • Breast Milk, a Source of Beneficial Microbes and Associated Benefits for Infant Health.

    Lyons, Katríona E; Ryan, C Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine (2020-04-09)
  • Potential for enriching next-generation health-promoting gut bacteria through prebiotics and other dietary components.

    Lordan, Cathy; Thapa, Dinesh; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D (2019-05-22)
    The human intestinal commensal microbiota and associated metabolic products have long been regarded as contributors to host health. As the identity and activities of the various members of this community have become clearer, newly identified health-associated bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus bromii and Roseburia species, have emerged. Notably, the abundance of many of these bacteria is inversely correlated to several disease states. While technological and regulatory hurdles may limit the use of strains from these taxa as probiotics, it should be possible to utilize prebiotics and other dietary components to selectively enhance their growth in situ. Dietary components of potential relevance include well-established prebiotics, such as galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin, while other putative prebiotics, such as other oligosaccharides, polyphenols, resistant starch, algae and seaweed as well as host gut metabolites such as lactate and acetate, may also be applied with the aim of selectively and/or differentially affecting the beneficial bacterial community within the gastrointestinal environment. The present review provides an overview of the dietary components that could be applied in this manner.
  • Prebiotics from Seaweeds: An Ocean of Opportunity?

    Cherry, Paul; Yadav, Supriya; Strain, Conall R; Allsopp, Philip J; McSorley, Emeir M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine (2019-06-01)
  • Prebiotic supplementation in frail older people affects specific gut microbiota taxa but not global diversity.

    Tran, Tam T T; Cousin, Fabien J; Lynch, Denise B; Menon, Ravi; Brulc, Jennifer; Brown, Jillian R-M; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Butto, Ludovica F; Power, Katie; Jeffery, Ian B; et al. (2019-03-13)
  • Modulation of antibiotic sensitivity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by interspecies signal analogues.

    An, Shi-Qi; Murtagh, Julie; Twomey, Kate B; Gupta, Manoj K; O'Sullivan, Timothy P; Ingram, Rebecca; Valvano, Miguel A; Tang, Ji-Liang (2019-05-27)
  • Microbial bile salt hydrolases mediate the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplant in the treatment of recurrent infection.

    Mullish, Benjamin H; McDonald, Julie A K; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Allegretti, Jessica R; Kao, Dina; Barker, Grace F; Kapila, Diya; Petrof, Elaine O; Joyce, Susan A; Gahan, Cormac G M; et al. (2019-02-11)
    Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) effectively treats recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI), but its mechanisms of action remain poorly defined. Certain bile acids affect C. difficile germination or vegetative growth. We hypothesised that loss of gut microbiota-derived bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) predisposes to CDI by perturbing gut bile metabolism, and that BSH restitution is a key mediator of FMT's efficacy in treating the condition.
  • Gene and Base Editing as a Therapeutic Option for Cystic Fibrosis-Learning from Other Diseases.

    Mention, Karen; Santos, Lúcia; Harrison, Patrick T (2019-05-21)
    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. There are at least 346 disease-causing variants in the CFTR gene, but effective small-molecule therapies exist for only ~10% of them. One option to treat all mutations is CFTR cDNA-based therapy, but clinical trials to date have only been able to stabilise rather than improve lung function disease in patients. While cDNA-based therapy is already a clinical reality for a number of diseases, some animal studies have clearly established that precision genome editing can be significantly more effective than cDNA addition. These observations have led to a number of gene-editing clinical trials for a small number of such genetic disorders. To date, gene-editing strategies to correct CFTR mutations have been conducted exclusively in cell models, with no in vivo gene-editing studies yet described. Here, we highlight some of the key breakthroughs in in vivo and ex vivo gene and base editing in animal models for other diseases and discuss what might be learned from these studies in the development of editing strategies that may be applied to cystic fibrosis as a potential therapeutic approach. There are many hurdles that need to be overcome, including the in vivo delivery of editing machinery or successful engraftment of ex vivo-edited cells, as well as minimising potential off-target effects. However, a successful proof-of-concept study for gene or base editing in one or more of the available CF animal models could pave the way towards a long-term therapeutic strategy for this disease.
  • An analysis of the attitudes of dental patients attending general dental practice in Galway

    Hayes, Martina; Burke, Francis; McKenna, Gerald; Madden, Jamie; Cronin, Michael (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2013-08)