Journal articles and theses by Irish authors

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  • Slow release oral morphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid use disorder.

    Klimas, Jan; Gorfinkel, Lauren; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M; Ruckes, Christian; Socías, M Eugenia; Fairbairn, Nadia; Wood, Evan (2019-04-02)
    Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using the random-effects model and expressed as risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed (χ2 statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic) and a sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the impact of particular high-risk trials.
  • Quantitative examination of the bone health status of older adults with intellectual and developmental disability in Ireland: a cross-sectional nationwide study.

    Burke, Éilish; Carroll, Rachael; O'Dwyer, Máire; Walsh, James Bernard; McCallion, Philip; McCarron, Mary (BMJ Open, 2019-04-15)
  • Managing the link and strengthening transition from child to adult mental health Care in Europe (MILESTONE): background, rationale and methodology.

    Tuomainen, H; Schulze, U; Warwick, J; Paul, M; Dieleman, G C; Franić, T; Madan, J; Maras, A; McNicholas, F; Purper-Ouakil, D; Santosh, P; Signorini, G; Street, C; Tremmery, S; Verhulst, F C; Wolke, D; Singh, S P (BMC Psychiatry, 2018-06-04)
  • The Burden of Severe Lactational Mastitis in Ireland from 2006 to 2015

    Cooney, F; Petty-Saphon, N; Department of Public Health, Dr Steevens' Hospital (irish Medical Journal, 2019-01-15)
  • Lacking evidence for the association between frequent urine drug screening and health outcomes of persons on opioid agonist therapy.

    McEachern, Jasmine; Adye-White, Lauren; Priest, Kelsey C; Moss, Eloise; Gorfinkel, Lauren; Wood, Evan; Cullen, Walter; Klimas, Jan (2019-02-01)
    Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is a first-line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD); however, the efficacy and role of urine drug screening (UDS) in OAT has received little research attention. Prior evidence suggests that UDS frequency reflects philosophy and practice context rather than differences in patient characteristics or clinical need. Therefore, we reviewed the literature on the effect of and recommendations for the frequency of UDS on health outcomes for persons with OUD who receive OAT. We searched Medline and EMBASE for articles published from 1995-2017. Search results underwent double, independent review with discrepancies resolved through discussion with a third reviewer, when necessary. Additional articles were identified through snowball searching, hand searching (Google Scholar), and expert consultation. The Cochrane tool was used to assess risk of bias. Of the 60 potentially eligible articles reviewed, only one three-arm randomized open-label trial, comparing weekly and monthly UDS testing with take-home OAT doses, met our inclusion criteria. Our review identified an urgent gap in research evidence underpinning an area of clinical importance and that is routinely reported by patients as an area of concern.
  • Perspectives of people with aphasia poststroke towards personal recovery and living successfully: A systematic review and thematic synthesis

    Manning, Molly; MacFarlane, Anne; Hickey, Anne; Franklin, Sue; School of Allied Health, Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick (Plos One, 2019-03)
  • A comparative analysis of prophylactic antimicrobial use in long-term care facilities in Ireland, 2013 and 2016

    Tandan, Meera; O'Connor, Rory; Burns, Karen; Murphy, Helen; Hennessy, Sarah; Roche, Fiona; Donlon, Sheila; Cormican, Martin; Vellinga, Akke (Eurosurveillance, 2019-03)
  • Excellent reliability and validity of the Addiction Medicine Training Need Assessment Scale across four countries.

    Pinxten, W J Lucas; Fitriana, Efi; De Jong, Cor; Klimas, Jan; Tobin, Helen; Barry, Tomas; Cullen, Walter; Jokubonis, Darius; Mazaliauskiene, Ramune; Iskandar, Shelly; Raya, Reynie Purnama; Schellekens, Arnt (2019-04-01)
    Addiction is a context specific but common and devastating condition. Though several evidence-based treatments are available, many of them remain under-utilized, among others due to the lack of adequate training in addiction medicine (AM). AM Training needs may differ across countries because of difference in discipline and level of prior AM training or contextual factors like epidemiology and availability of treatment. For appropriate testing of training needs, reliability and validity are key issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the AM-TNA Scale: an instrument specifically designed to develop the competence-based curriculum of the Indonesian AM course. In a cross-sectional study in Indonesia, Ireland, Lithuania and the Netherlands the AM-TNA was distributed among a convenience sample of health professionals working in addiction care in The Netherlands, Lithuania, Indonesia and General Practitioners in-training in Ireland. 428 respondents completed the AM-TNA scale. To assess the factor structure, we used explorative factor analysis. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's Alpha, ANOVA determined the discriminative validity. Validity: factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure: One on providing direct patient treatment and care (Factor 1: clinical) and one factor on facilitating/supporting direct patient treatment and care (Factor 2: non-clinical) AM competencies and a cumulative 76% explained variance. Reliability: Factor 1 α = 0.983 and Factor 2: α = 0.956, while overall reliability was (α = 0.986). The AM-TNA was able to differentiate training needs across groups of AM professionals on all 30 addiction medicine competencies (P = .001). In our study the AM-TNA scale had a strong two-factor structure and proofed to be a reliable and valid instrument. The next step should be the testing external validity, strengthening discriminant validity and assessing the re-test effect and measuring changes over time.
  • Association between caesarean section delivery and obesity in childhood: a longitudinal cohort study in Ireland.

    Masukume, Gwinyai; McCarthy, Fergus P; Baker, Philip N; Kenny, Louise C; Morton, Susan Mb; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Khashan, Ali S (BMJ Open, 2019-03-15)
    To investigate the association between caesarean section (CS) birth and body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI) and being overweight or obese in early childhood. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Babies After Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact on Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints cohort. Infants born to mothers recruited from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study, Cork University Maternity Hospital between November 2007 and February 2011.
  • What are the training needs of early career professionals in addiction medicine? A BEME Scoping Review protocol

    Kelly, D; Adam, A; Arya, S; Indave, I; Krupchanka, D; Wood, E; Cullen, W; Klimas, Jan (BEME, 2018)
  • Codeine Usage in Ireland- A Timely Discussion on an Imminent Epidemic

    McDonnell, E; Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick (Irish Medical Journal, 2019-03)
  • In-hospital training in addiction medicine: A mixed-methods study of health care provider benefits and differences.

    Gorfinkel, Lauren; Klimas, Jan; Reel, Breanne; Dong, Huiru; Ahamad, Keith; Fairgrieve, Christopher; McLean, Mark; Mead, Annabel; Nolan, Seonaid; Small, Will; Cullen, Walter; Wood, Evan; Fairbairn, Nadia (2019-01-28)
    Hospital-based clinical addiction medicine training can improve knowledge of clinical care for substance-using populations. However, application of structured, self-assessment tools to evaluate differences in knowledge gained by learners who participate in such training has not yet been addressed. Participants (n = 142) of an elective with the hospital-based Addiction Medicine Consult Team (AMCT) in Vancouver, Canada, responded to an online self-evaluation survey before and immediately after the structured elective. Areas covered included substance use screening, history taking, signs and symptoms examination, withdrawal treatment, relapse prevention, nicotine use disorders, opioid use disorders, safe prescribing, and the biology of substance use disorders. A purposefully selected sample of 18 trainees were invited to participate in qualitative interviews that elicited feedback on the rotation. Of 168 invited trainees, 142 (84.5%) completed both pre- and post-rotation self-assessments between May 2015 and May 2017. Follow-up participants included medical students, residents, addiction medicine fellows, and family physicians in practice. Self-assessed knowledge of addiction medicine increased significantly post-rotation (mean difference in scores = 11.87 out of the maximum possible 63 points, standard deviation = 17.00; P < .0001). Medical students were found to have the most significant improvement in addiction knowledge (estimated mean difference = 4.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.76, 8.09; P = .018). Illustrative quotes describe the dynamics involved in the learning process among trainees. Completion of a hospital-based clinical elective was associated with improved knowledge of addiction medicine. Medical students appear to benefit more from the addiction elective with a hospital-based AMCT than other types of learners.
  • Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

    Klimas, Jan; Fairgrieve, Christopher; Tobin, Helen; Field, Catherine-Anne; O'Gorman, Clodagh Sm; Glynn, Liam G; Keenan, Eamon; Saunders, Jean; Bury, Gerard; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter (2018-12-05)
    Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID. To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, from inception up to August 2017, and the reference lists of eligible articles. We also searched: 1) conference proceedings (online archives only) of the Society for the Study of Addiction, International Harm Reduction Association, International Conference on Alcohol Harm Reduction and American Association for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence; and 2) online registers of clinical trials: Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Center Watch and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included randomised controlled trials comparing psychosocial interventions with other psychosocial treatment, or treatment as usual, in adult PWIDs (aged at least 18 years) with concurrent problem alcohol use.
  • Polypharmacy Rates among Patients over 45 years

    Tatum, T; Curry, P; Dunne, B; Walsh, K; Bennett, K; UCD Geary Institute for Public Policy, University College Dublin (Irish Medical Journal, 2019-03)
  • Comparing Canadian and United States opioid agonist therapy policies.

    Priest, Kelsey C; Gorfinkel, Lauren; Klimas, Jan; Jones, Andrea A; Fairbairn, Nadia; McCarty, Dennis (2019-02-11)
    Canada and the United States (U.S.) face an opioid use disorder (OUD) and opioid overdose epidemic. The most effective OUD treatment is opioid agonist therapy (OAT)-buprenorphine (with and without naloxone) and methadone. Although federal approval for OAT occurred decades ago, in both countries, access to and use of OAT is low. Restrictive policies and complex regulations contribute to limited OAT access. Through a non-systematic literature scan and a review of publicly available policy documents, we examined and compared OAT policies and practice at the federal (Canada vs. U.S.) and local levels (British Columbia [B.C.] vs. Oregon). Differences and similarities were noted between federal and local OAT policies, and subsequently OAT access. In Canada, OAT policy control has shifted from federal to provincial authorities. Conversely, in the U.S., federal authorities maintain primary control of OAT regulations. Local OAT health insurance coverage policies were substantively different between B.C. and Oregon. In B.C., five OAT options were available, while in Oregon, only two OAT options were available with administrative limitations. The differences in local OAT access and coverage policies between B.C. and Oregon, may be explained, in part, to the differences in Canadian and U.S. federal OAT policies, specifically, the relaxation of special federal OAT regulatory controls in Canada. The analysis also highlights the complicating contributions, and likely policy solutions, that exist within other drug policy sub-domains (e.g., the prescription regime, and drug control regime) and broader policy domains (e.g., constitutional rights). U.S. policymakers and health officials could consider adopting Canada's regulatory policy approach to expand OAT access to mitigate the harms of the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic.
  • The Profile of Women Attending the National Maternity Hospital Emergency Out Of Hours Service – Two Decades On. A Retrospective Review

    O’Brien, O.F; Lee, S.; Baby, A.; McAuliffe, F.M; Higgins, M.F (Irish Medical Journal, 2019-03)
  • Identifying the Optimum Role and Function of an Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) Outreach Nurse

    Donohoe, Ann; Kearney, Sandra; McAuliffe, Eilish; School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems at University College Dublin. (School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems at University College Dublin., 2018-07)
  • Medical management of acute upper respiratory infections in an urban primary care out-of-hours facility: cross-sectional study of patient presentations and expectations.

    O'Connor, Raymond; O'Doherty, Jane; O'Regan, Andrew; O'Neill, Aoife; McMahon, Claire; Dunne, Colum P (BMJ Open, 2019-02-15)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the expectations of patients attending an urban primary care out-of-hours (OOH) facility with acute upper respiratory tract infection (acute URTI) regarding clinical examination, symptom management, information on their condition, reassurance, antibiotic treatment and other possible options including referral. Cross-sectional design. One urban primary care OOH facility located in the midwest of Ireland. 457 patients filled out a questionnaire while waiting in the OOH facility; 22 surveys were excluded as the patients did not present with symptoms of acute URTI resulting in 435 patients' data being included in this study. There were 59.5% female participants and 40.5% male participants.

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