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Discourse on medicine: meditative and calculative approaches to ethics from an international perspectiveMalloy, David C; Martin, Ronald; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Liu, Peilai; McCarthy, Elizabeth F; Park, Ilhyeok; Shalani, N; Murakami, Masaaki; Paholpak, Suchat (2014-11-07)Abstract Heidegger’s two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada’s universal health care system.