• Blockade of Toll-like receptor 2 prevents spontaneous cytokine release from rheumatoid arthritis ex vivo synovial explant cultures

      Nic An Ultaigh, Sinead; Saber, Tajvur P; McCormick, Jennifer; Connolly, Mary; Dellacasagrande, Jerome; Keogh, Brian; McCormack, William; Reilly, Mary; O'Neill, Luke A; McGuirk, Peter; et al. (2011-02-23)
      Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Methods RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients. Cultures were incubated with the TLR1/2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (200 ng, 1 and 10 μg/ml), an anti-TLR2 antibody (OPN301, 1 μg/ml) or an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (1 μg/ml) matched control. The comparative effect of OPN301 and adalimumab (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha) on spontaneous release of proinflammatory cytokines from RA synovial explants was determined using quantitative cytokine MSD multiplex assays or ELISA. OPN301 penetration into RA synovial tissue explants cultures was assessed by immunohistology. Results Pam3CSK4 significantly upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05). OPN301 significantly decreased Pam3CSK4-induced cytokine production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-8 compared to IgG control in RA PBMCs and SFMCs cultures (all P < 0.05). OPN301 penetration of RA synovial tissue cultures was detected in the lining layer and perivascular regions. OPN301 significantly decreased spontaneous cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-8 from RA synovial tissue explant cultures (all P < 0.05). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of OPN on spontaneous cytokine secretion was comparable to inhibition by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody adalimumab. Conclusions These findings further support targeting TLR2 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.
    • Blockade of Toll-like receptor 2 prevents spontaneous cytokine release from rheumatoid arthritis ex vivo synovial explant cultures

      Nic An Ultaigh, Sinead; Saber, Tajvur P; McCormick, Jennifer; Connolly, Mary; Dellacasagrande, Jerome; Keogh, Brian; McCormack, William; Reilly, Mary; O'Neill, Luke A; McGuirk, Peter; et al. (2011-02-23)
      Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Methods RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients. Cultures were incubated with the TLR1/2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (200 ng, 1 and 10 μg/ml), an anti-TLR2 antibody (OPN301, 1 μg/ml) or an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (1 μg/ml) matched control. The comparative effect of OPN301 and adalimumab (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha) on spontaneous release of proinflammatory cytokines from RA synovial explants was determined using quantitative cytokine MSD multiplex assays or ELISA. OPN301 penetration into RA synovial tissue explants cultures was assessed by immunohistology. Results Pam3CSK4 significantly upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05). OPN301 significantly decreased Pam3CSK4-induced cytokine production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-8 compared to IgG control in RA PBMCs and SFMCs cultures (all P < 0.05). OPN301 penetration of RA synovial tissue cultures was detected in the lining layer and perivascular regions. OPN301 significantly decreased spontaneous cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-8 from RA synovial tissue explant cultures (all P < 0.05). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of OPN on spontaneous cytokine secretion was comparable to inhibition by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody adalimumab. Conclusions These findings further support targeting TLR2 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.
    • Remission in psoriatic arthritis: is it possible and how can it be predicted?

      Saber, Tajvur P; Ng, CT; Renard, Guillaume; Lynch, Bernadette M; Pontifex, Eliza; Walsh, Ceara AE; Grier, Alexia; Molloy, Marian; Bresnihan, Barry; FitzGerald, Oliver; et al. (2010-05-18)
      Abstract Introduction Since remission is now possible in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) we wished to examine remission rates in PsA patients following anti tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) therapy and to examine possible predictors of response. Methods Analysis of a prospective patient cohort attending a biologic clinic, between November 2004 and March 2008, was performed prior to commencing therapy and at regular intervals. Baseline clinical characteristics including demographics, previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) response, tender and swollen joint counts, early morning stiffness, pain visual analogue score, patient global assessment, C reactive protein (CRP) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were collected. Results A total of 473 patients (152 PsA; 321 rheumatoid arthritis (RA)) were analyzed. At 12 months remission, defined according to the disease activity score using 28 joint count and CRP (DAS28-CRP), was achieved in 58% of PsA patients compared to 44% of RA patients, significant improvement in outcome measures were noted in both groups (P < 0.05). Analysis of a subgroup of PsA and RA patients matched for DAS28-CRP at baseline also showed higher numbers of PsA patients achieving remission. Linear regression analysis identified the HAQ at baseline as the best predictor of remission in PsA patients (P < 0.001). Conclusions DAS28 remission is possible in PsA patients at one year following anti-TNF therapy, at higher rates than in RA patients and is predicted by baseline HAQ.
    • Remission in psoriatic arthritis: is it possible and how can it be predicted?

      Saber, Tajvur P; Ng, C T; Renard, Guillaume; Lynch, Bernadette M; Pontifex, Eliza; Walsh, Ceara A E; Grier, Alexia; Molloy, Marian; Bresnihan, Barry; Fitzgerald, Oliver; et al. (2010)
      Since remission is now possible in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) we wished to examine remission rates in PsA patients following anti tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) therapy and to examine possible predictors of response.