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Impact of pharmacotherapy on the incidence of transurethral prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia and the implications for surgical training.Medical therapy has become first line treatment for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) and in many cases TURP may no longer be required. Proof and quantification of this evolution in practice has been somewhat elusive and provided the principle impetus for this study. This is a retrospective study of BPH management in Republic of Ireland from 1995 to 2008. National treatment databases were sourced for numbers undergoing TURP and pharmacotherapy prescribing data was obtained from individual pharmaceutical companies. A total of 28,240 TURP's were performed nationally between 1995 and 2008. TURP's performed annually, decreased by 1,494 (51%), alpha-blocker prescriptions increased from 8,710 to 302,159 units and the number of urology trainees increased by 10 (60%). Clear association between decreases in TURP's and increases in pharmacotherapy for BPH is demonstrated. Implications on training likely exist and will require proper evaluation in order to maintain future standards in this surgical practice.