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Excess visceral adiposity induces alterations in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in esophageal adenocarcinomaAbstract Background Visceral obesity has a strong association with both the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Alterations in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer, however, the potential role that obesity plays in driving these alterations in EAC is currently unknown. Methods Adipose conditioned media (ACM) was prepared from visceral adipose tissue taken from computed tomography-determined viscerally-obese and non-obese EAC patients. Mitochondrial function in EAC cell lines was assessed using fluorescent probes, mitochondrial gene expression was assessed using qPCR-based gene arrays and intracellular ATP levels were determined using a luminescence-based kit. Glycolysis and oxidative phosphophorylation was measured using Seahorse XF technology and metabolomic analysis was performed using 1H NMR. Expression of metabolic markers was assessed in EAC tumor biopsies by qPCR. Results ACM from obese EAC patients significantly increased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells, which was significantly associated with visceral fat area, and was coupled with a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species. This mitochondrial dysfunction was accompanied by altered expression of 19 mitochondrial-associated genes and significantly reduced intracellular ATP levels. ACM from obese EAC patients induced a metabolic shift to glycolysis in EAC cells, which was coupled with significantly increased sensitivity to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose. Metabolomic profiling demonstrated an altered glycolysis and amino acid-related signature in ACM from obese patients. In EAC tumors, expression of the glycolytic marker PKM2 was significantly positively associated with obesity. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that ACM from viscerally-obese EAC patients elicits an altered metabolic profile and can drive mitochondrial dysfunction and altered energy metabolism in EAC cells in vitro. In vivo, in EAC patient tumors, expression of the glycolytic enzyme PKM2 is positively associated with obesity.
ICORG 10-14: NEOadjuvant trial in Adenocarcinoma of the oEsophagus and oesophagoGastric junction International Study (Neo-AEGIS)Abstract Background Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly the standard of care in the management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and junction (AEG). In randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the MAGIC regimen of pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, and the CROSS regimen of preoperative chemotherapy combined with radiation, were superior to surgery only in RCTs that included AEG but were not powered on this cohort. No completed RCT has directly compared neoadjuvant or perioperative chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The Neo-AEGIS trial, uniquely powered on AEG, and including comprehensive modern staging, compares both these regimens. Methods This open label, multicentre, phase III RCT randomises patients (cT2-3, N0-3, M0) in a 1:1 fashion to receive CROSS protocol (Carboplatin and Paclitaxel with concurrent radiotherapy, 41.4Gy/23Fr, over 5 weeks). The power calculation is a 10% difference in favour of CROSS, powered at 80%, two-sided alpha level of 0.05, requiring 540 patients to be evaluable, 594 to be recruited if a 10% dropout is included (297 in each group). The primary endpoint is overall survival, with a minimum 3-year follow up. Secondary endpoints include: disease free survival, recurrence rates, clinical and pathological response rates, toxicities of induction regimens, post-operative pathology and tumour regression grade, operative in-hospital complications, and health-related quality of life. The trial also affords opportunities for establishing a bio-resource of pre-treatment and resected tumour, and translational research. Discussion This RCT directly compares two established treatment regimens, and addresses whether radiation therapy positively impacts on overall survival compared with a standard perioperative chemotherapy regimen Sponsor: Irish Clinical Research Group (ICORG). Trial registration NCT01726452 . Protocol 10-14. Date of registration 06/11/2012.