• Adolescent males in secondary school in Ireland: alcohol use and depressed mood

      Kerr, Robert (Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 2013)
    • Bridging the digital disconnect

      Clarke, Aleisha M; Kuosmanen, Tuuli; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M; National University of Ireland (2014-10)
    • Cocaine use in Young Adults: Correlation with Early Onset Cannabis, Alcohol and Tobacco Use

      Smyth, BP; Hannigan, A; Cullen, W (Irish Medical Journal, 2016-10)
    • Considering quality of care for young adults with diabetes in Ireland

      Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronan (2013-10-29)
      Abstract Background Research on the quality of diabetes care provided to young adults with Type 1 diabetes is lacking. This study investigates perceptions of quality of care for young adults with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years old) living in the Republic of Ireland. Methods Thirty-five young adults with Type 1 diabetes (twenty-nine women, six men) and thirteen healthcare professionals (ten diabetes nurse specialists, three consultant Endocrinologists) were recruited. All study participants completed semi-structured interviews that explored their perspectives on the quality of diabetes services in Ireland. Interviews were analyzed using standard qualitative thematic analysis techniques. Results Most interviewees identified problems with Irish diabetes services for young adults. Healthcare services were often characterised by long waiting times, inadequate continuity of care, overreliance on junior doctors and inadequate professional-patient interaction times. Many rural and non-specialist services lacked funding for diabetes education programmes, diabetes nurse specialists, insulin pumps or for psychological support, though these services are important components of quality Type 1 diabetes healthcare. Allied health services such as psychology, podiatry and dietician services appeared to be underfunded in many parts of the country. While Irish diabetes services lacked funding prior to the recession, the economic decline in Ireland, and the subsequent austerity imposed on the Irish health service as a result of that decline, appears to have additional negative consequences. Despite these difficulties, a number of specialist healthcare services for young adults with diabetes seemed to be providing excellent quality of care. Although young adults and professionals identified many of the same problems with Irish diabetes services, professionals appeared to be more critical of diabetes services than young adults. Young adults generally expressed high levels of satisfaction with services, even where they noted that aspects of those services were sub-optimal. Conclusion Good quality care appears to be unequally distributed throughout Ireland. National austerity measures appear to be negatively impacting health services for young adults with diabetes. There is a need for more Endocrinologist and diabetes nurse specialist posts to be funded in Ireland, as well as allied health professional posts.
    • Designing youth mental health services for the 21st century: examples from Australia, Ireland and the UK

      McGorry, P.; Bates, T.; Birchwood, M. (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013)
    • Inter-agency cooperation between services for children and families in Ireland: does it improve outcomes?

      McKeown, Kieran; Social and Economic Research Consultant based in Dublin, Ireland (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012)
    • Managing the link and strengthening transition from child to adult mental health Care in Europe (MILESTONE): background, rationale and methodology.

      Tuomainen, H; Schulze, U; Warwick, J; Paul, M; Dieleman, G C; Franić, T; Madan, J; Maras, A; McNicholas, F; Purper-Ouakil, D; et al. (BMC Psychiatry, 2018-06-04)
    • Primary care and youth mental health in Ireland: qualitative study in deprived urban areas

      Leahy, Dorothy; Schaffalitzky, Elisabeth; Armstrong, Claire; Bury, Gerard; Cussen-Murphy, Paula; Davis, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Gavin, Blanaid; Keane, Rory; Keenan, Eamon; et al. (2013-12-17)
      Abstract Background Mental disorders account for six of the 20 leading causes of disability worldwide with a very high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in youth aged 15–24 years. However, healthcare professionals are faced with many challenges in the identification and treatment of mental and substance use disorders in young people (e.g. young people’s unwillingness to seek help from healthcare professionals, lack of training, limited resources etc.) The challenge of youth mental health for primary care is especially evident in urban deprived areas, where rates of and risk factors for mental health problems are especially common. There is an emerging consensus that primary care is well placed to address mental and substance use disorders in young people especially in deprived urban areas. This study aims to describe healthcare professionals’ experience and attitudes towards screening and early intervention for mental and substance use disorders among young people (16–25 years) in primary care in deprived urban settings in Ireland. Methods The chosen method for this qualitative study was inductive thematic analysis which involved semi-structured interviews with 37 healthcare professionals from primary care, secondary care and community agencies at two deprived urban centres. Results We identified three themes in respect of interventions to increase screening and treatment: (1) Identification is optimised by a range of strategies, including raising awareness, training, more systematic and formalised assessment, and youth-friendly practices (e.g. communication skills, ensuring confidentiality); (2) Treatment is enhanced by closer inter-agency collaboration and training for all healthcare professionals working in primary care; (3) Ongoing engagement is enhanced by motivational work with young people, setting achievable treatment goals, supporting transition between child and adult mental health services and recognising primary care’s longitudinal nature as a key asset in promoting treatment engagement. Conclusions Especially in deprived areas, primary care is central to early intervention for youth mental health. Identification, treatment and continuing engagement are likely to be enhanced by a range of strategies with young people, healthcare professionals and systems. Further research on youth mental health and primary care, including qualitative accounts of young people’s experience and developing complex interventions that promote early intervention are priorities. (350 words)
    • Psychotic symptoms, functioning and coping in adolescents with mental illness

      Wigman, Johanna TW; Devlin, Nina; Kelleher, Ian; Murtagh, Aileen; Harley, Michelle; Kehoe, Anne; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Cannon, Mary (2014-04-01)
      Abstract Background Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual’s ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association. Methods In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was investigated using the Adolescents Coping Scale. Severity of impairment in socio-occupational functioning was assessed with the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Results Patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms (N = 50) had poorer functioning and were more likely to use avoidance-oriented coping compared to patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders without psychotic symptoms (N = 56). No differences were found with respect to approach-oriented coping. When stratifying for poor/good coping, only those adolescent patients with psychotic symptoms who applied poor coping (i.e. less use of approach-oriented coping styles [OR 0.24, p < 0.015] and more use of avoidance-oriented coping [OR 0.23, p < 0.034]) had poorer functioning. However, these interactions were not significant. Conclusions Non-adaptive coping and poorer functioning were more often present in adolescents with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms. Due to small subgroups, our analyses could not give definitive conclusions about the question whether coping moderated the association between psychotic symptoms and functioning. Improvement of coping skills may form an important target for intervention that may contribute to better clinical and functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms.
    • Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

      Davoren, Martin P; Hayes, Kevin; Horgan, Mary; Shiely, Frances; PhD Student, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2014-10)
      The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.
    • The Sleep Programme: Promoting Positive Sleep Habits With Young People

      Comerford, Ruth; Fiona Creedon; Loughran, Patrick; Murphy, Laura; O Halloran, Joanne (CROSSCARE, 2018-03)
    • A smartphone intervention for adolescent obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

      O’Malley, Grace; Clarke, Mike; Burls, Amanda; Murphy, Sinéad; Murphy, Nuala; Perry, Ivan J (2014-01-31)
      Abstract Background There are few evidence-based mobile health solutions for treating adolescent obesity. The primary aim of this parallel non-inferiority trial is to assess the effectiveness of an experimental smartphone application in reducing obesity at 12 months, compared to the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles intervention. Methods/design The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index standardised deviation score at 12 months. The secondary aim is to compare the effect of treatment on secondary outcomes, including waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, quality of life, physical activity and psychosocial health. Adolescents with a body mass index at or above the 98th percentile (12 to 17 years) will be recruited from the Obesity clinic at Temple Street Children’s University Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. W82GO is a family-based lifestyle change intervention delivered in two phases over 12 months. In the current study, participants will be randomised for phase two of treatment to either usual care or care delivered via smartphone application. One hundred and thirty-four participants will be randomised between the two study arms. An intention-to-treat analysis will be used to compare treatment differences between the groups at 12 months. Discussion The results of this study will be disseminated via open access publication and will provide important information for clinicians, patients and policy makers regarding the use of mobile health interventions in the management of adolescent obesity. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01804855.
    • Student sex: more or less risky than other young adults?

      Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor (Taylor & Francis Group, 2014-09)
    • Synovial membrane protein expression differs between juvenile idiopathic arthritis subtypes in early disease

      Finnegan, Sorcha; Robson, Joanne; Scaife, Caitriona; McAllister, Catherine; Pennington, Stephen R; Gibson, David S; Rooney, Madeleine E (2014-01-13)
      Abstract Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood with a prevalence of around 1 in 1,000. Without appropriate treatment it can have devastating consequences including permanent disability from joint destruction and growth deformities. Disease aetiology remains unknown. Investigation of disease pathology at the level of the synovial membrane is required if we want to begin to understand the disease at the molecular and biochemical level. The synovial membrane proteome from early disease-stage, treatment naive JIA patients was compared between polyarticular and oligoarticular subgroups. Methods Protein was extracted from 15 newly diagnosed, treatment naive JIA synovial membrane biopsies and separated by two dimensional fluorescent difference in-gel electrophoresis. Proteins displaying a two-fold or greater change in expression levels between the two subgroups were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry with expression further verified by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Analysis of variance analysis (P ≤ 0.05) revealed 25 protein spots with a two-fold or greater difference in expression levels between polyarticular and oligoarticular patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis with Pearson ranked correlation revealed two distinctive clusters of proteins. Some of the proteins that were differentially expressed included: integrin alpha 2b (P = 0.04); fibrinogen D fragment (P = 0.005); collagen type VI (P = 0.03); fibrinogen gamma chain (P = 0.05) and peroxiredoxin 2 (P = 0.02). The identified proteins are involved in a number of different processes including platelet activation and the coagulation system. Conclusions The data indicate distinct synovial membrane proteome profiles between JIA subgroups at an early stage in the disease process. The identified proteins also provide insight into differentially perturbed pathways which could influence pathological events at the joint level.
    • Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention

      Flynn, Darran; Smith, Damian; Quirke, Luke; Monks, Stephen; Kennedy, Harry G (2012-08-03)
      Abstract Background The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland’s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs. Methods Every third new committal to a young offenders prison was interviewed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) to identify the Ultra High Risk (UHR) state and a structured interview for assessing drug and alcohol misuse according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Developmental Understanding of Drug Misuse and Dependence - Short Form (DUNDRUM-S). Results Over a twelve month period 171 young male offenders aged 16 to 20 were assessed. Of these 39 (23%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 30%) met UHR criteria. UHR states peaked at 18 years, were associated with lower SOFAS scores for social and occupational function and were also associated with multiple substance misuse. The relationship with lower SOFAS scores persisted even when co-varying for multiple substance misuse. Conclusions Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.
    • University students' awareness of causes and risk factors of miscarriage: a cross-sectional study.

      San Lazaro Campillo, Indra; Meaney, Sarah; Sheehan, Jacqueline; Rice, Rachel; O'Donoghue, Keelin (BMC Women's Health, 2018-11-19)
    • Young people and drugs: A review document

      Cox, Gemma; The Addiction Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin (The Addiction Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin, 2002-09)