• Dental awareness of Orthodontic patients

      Field, D; Rutledge, D; Carty, D (1997)
    • Dental erosion – current perspectives for general practice

      McCarthy, Dr Ray (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2012-10)
    • Dental experience of cleft affected children in the west of Ireland.

      Hewson, A R; McNamara, C M; Foley, T F; Sandy, J R (2001-04)
      To investigate caries experience and initial access to dental services in a group of children with cleft lip/palate in the west of Ireland.
    • Dental Geminations of double teeth: review and case series

      McNamara, CM; Cooney, O; O'Sullivan, M (1998)
    • Dental nursing across Ireland.

      Sheridan, Carmen (Irish Dental Association, 2009-08)
    • Dentists' approach to patients on anti-platelet agents and warfarin: a survey of practice.

      Murphy, James; Twohig, Eoin; McWilliams, Sebastian R; james.anthony.murphy@gmail.com (2010-04-23)
      In everyday practice, dentists are confronted with the dilemma of patients on anti-platelet agents and warfarin who require invasive dental procedures and, more pertinently, dental extractions. There may be a divergence of opinion among dentists regarding how they manage these patients. AIMS: To assess general dental practitioners' approach to the management of patients taking anti-platelet agents and/or warfarin who are undergoing invasive dental procedures. METHODS AND DATA: A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to survey general dental practitioners in a large Irish urban area. RESULTS: A response rate of 89% was achieved in a study population of 54 general dental practitioners. A total of 25% of respondents who carry out extractions on warfarinised patients do not check the INR prior to invasive dental procedures. Some 90% of respondents stop anti-platelet agents prior to extractions. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of respondents fail to check warfarinised patients' INR prior to invasive dental procedures. Furthermore, a trend of stopping anti-platelet agents was noted, which is in contrast with current recommendations in the dental literature. Certain practices in this small study population proved alarming and highlight the need for improved awareness of current guidelines. A further large-scale study may be justified, as variation in practice may have clinical and medico-legal repercussions.
    • Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells.

      Looby, Eileen; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Athié-Morales, Veronica; Duggan, Shane; Long, Aideen; Kelleher, Dermot; Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. loobye@tcd.ie (2009)
      BACKGROUND: The progression from Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA) has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. RESULTS: DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. CONCLUSION: DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate.
    • Depression in late life

      Butler, Mary Pat (Nursing in General Practice, 2013-04)
    • Derived more-less relational mands in children diagnosed with autism.

      Murphy, Carol; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Department of Psychology, National University of Ireland, County Kildare, Ireland. Carol.A.Murphy@nuim.ie (2009)
      In Experiment 1, more and less relations were trained for arbitrary Stimuli A1 and A2 with 3 children with autism. The following conditional discriminations were then trained: A1-B1, A2-B2, B1-C1, B2-C2. In subsequent tests, participants showed derived more-less mands (mand with C1 for more and mand with C2 for less). A training procedure reversed the B-C conditional discriminations, and participants then showed derived reversed more-less mands (mand with C1 for less, C2 for more). Baseline B-C relations were retrained, and participants subsequently demonstrated a return to the original derived manding. A second experiment with 1 prior participant and 1 naive participant removed a possible confounding effect. Establishing derived manding may be an advantageous component when teaching a mand repertoire in applied settings.
    • Derry Well Woman Annual Report 2005

      Derry Well Woman (Derry Well Woman, 2006)
    • Derry Well Woman Annual Report 2006

      Derry Well Woman (Derry Well Woman, 2007)
    • Derry Well Woman Annual Report 2007

      Derry Well Woman (Derry Well Woman, 2008)
    • Derry Well Woman Literature Review: Executive Summary

      Derry Well Woman (Derry Well Woman, 2003-04)
    • The descriptive epidemiology of delirium symptoms in a large population-based cohort study: results from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS)

      Davis, Daniel HJ; Barnes, Linda E; Stephan, Blossom CM; MacLullich, Alasdair MJ; Meagher, David; Copeland, John; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; on behalf of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (2014-07-28)
      Abstract Background In the general population, the epidemiological relationships between delirium and adverse outcomes are not well defined. The aims of this study were to: (1) construct an algorithm for the diagnosis of delirium using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination; (2) test the criterion validity of this algorithm against mortality and dementia risk; (3) report the age-specific prevalence of delirium as determined by this algorithm. Methods Participant and informant data in a randomly weighted subsample of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study were taken from a standardized assessment battery. The algorithmic definition of delirium was based on the DSM-IV classification. Outcomes were: proportional hazard ratios for death; odds ratios of dementia at 2-year follow-up. Results Data from 2197 persons (representative of 13,004) were used, median age 77 years, 64% women. Study-defined delirium was associated with a new dementia diagnosis at two years (OR 8.82, 95% CI 2.76 to 28.2) and death (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.60), even after adjustment for acute illness severity. Similar associations were seen for study-defined subsyndromal delirium. Age-specific prevalence as determined by the algorithm increased with age from 1.8% in the 65-69 year age group to 10.1% in the ≥85 age group (p < 0.01 for trend). For study-defined subsyndromal delirium, age-specific period prevalence ranged from 8.2% (65-69 years) to 36.1% (≥85 years). Conclusions These results demonstrate the possibility of constructing an algorithmic diagnosis for study-defined delirium using data from the GMS schedule, with predictive criterion validity for mortality and dementia risk. These are the first population-based analyses able to account prospectively for both illness severity and an earlier study diagnosis of dementia.
    • Design and development of a film-based intervention about teenage men and unintended pregnancy: Applying the Medical Research Council framework in practice.

      Aventin, Aine; Lohan, Maria; O'Halloran, Peter; Henderson, Marion (Evaluation and program planning, 2014-11-15)
      Following the UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, this study aimed to design, develop and optimise an educational intervention about young men and unintended teenage pregnancy based around an interactive film. The process involved identification of the relevant evidence base, development of a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of unintended teenage pregnancy in relation to young men, and exploratory mixed methods research. The result was an evidence-based, theory-informed, user-endorsed intervention designed to meet the much neglected pregnancy education needs of teenage men and intended to increase both boys' and girls' intentions to avoid an unplanned pregnancy during adolescence. In prioritising the development phase, this paper addresses a gap in the literature on the processes of research-informed intervention design. It illustrates the application of the MRC guidelines in practice while offering a critique and additional guidance to programme developers on the MRC prescribed processes of developing interventions. Key lessons learned were: (1) know and engage the target population and engage gatekeepers in addressing contextual complexities; (2) know the targeted behaviours and model a process of change; and (3) look beyond development to evaluation and implementation.
    • Designing youth mental health services for the 21st century: examples from Australia, Ireland and the UK

      McGorry, P.; Bates, T.; Birchwood, M. (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013)
    • Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.

      O'Daly, Brendan J; Ridgway, Paul F; Keenan, Niamh; Sweeney, Karl J; Brophy, David P; Hill, Arnold D K; Evoy, Denis; O'Higgins, Niall J; McDermott, Enda W M; Surgical Professorial Unit, St Vincent'sUniversity Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin, Ireland. (2009-06)
      BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.
    • Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

      Madden, Stephen F; Carpenter, Susan B; Jeffery, Ian B; Bjorkbacka, Harry; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; O'Neill, Luke A; Higgins, Desmond G (2010-05-18)
      Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.
    • Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

      Madden, Stephen F; Carpenter, Susan B; Jeffery, Ian B; Bjorkbacka, Harry; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; O'Neill, Luke A; Higgins, Desmond G (2010-05-18)
      Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.