• Eastern Health Board outcome of Orthodontic assessment

      McNamara, CM; Field, D; Crowley, N (1998)
    • Eating patterns and factors influencing likely change in the workplace

      Fleming, Sean; Kelleher, Cecily; O'Connor M; National Nutrition Surveillance Centre, Department of Health Promotion, University College Galway, Eastern Health Board (1997)
    • Ebola – prepare yourself in less than 15 minutes

      Nolan, Lisa (Nursing in General Practice, 2015-01)
    • Ebola, Zika and the International Health Regulations – implications for Port Health Preparedness

      Glynn, R. W; Boland, M. (2016-11-21)
      Abstract Background The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa in 2014-2015 was unprecedented in terms of its scale and consequence.  This, together with the emergence of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in 2016, has again highlighted the potential for disease to spread across international borders and provided an impetus for countries to review their Port Health preparedness. This report reviews the legislative framework and actions taken under this framework in advancing and improving Port Health preparedness in Ireland, in response to the declaration of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern for Ebola Virus Disease in August 2014. Findings Infectious disease Shipping and Aircraft Regulations were brought into force in Ireland in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Preparatory actions taken under these and the International Health Regulations necessitated significant levels of cross disciplinary working with other organisations, both within and beyond traditional healthcare settings. Information packs on Ebola Virus Disease were prepared and distributed to airports, airlines, port authorities and shipping agents, and practical exercises were held at relevant sites. Agreements were put in place for contact tracing of passenger and crew on affected conveyances and protocols were established for the management of Medical Declarations of Health from ships coming from West Africa. Conclusions The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa resulted in significant strengthening of Ireland’s Port Health preparedness, while also highlighting the extent to which preparedness requires ongoing and sustained commitment from all stakeholders, both nationally and internationally, in ensuring that countries are ready when the next threat presents at their borders.
    • Economic appraisal in health: some conceptual and methodological issues

      Durkan, Joe; University College Dublin. Graduate School of Business. Centre for Health Economics (University College Dublin. Graduate School of Business, 1994)
    • Economic aspects of general medical practice

      Foley, Anthony; Irish Medical Organisation (IMO) (1992-08)
    • Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

      Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique; Berglund, Marika; Castaño, Argelia; Čejchanová, Mája; Crettaz, Pierre; Davidson, Fred; Esteban, Marta; Fischer, Marc E; et al. (2013-01-07)
      Abstract Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial economic benefits in Europe, mainly in southern countries. Some data may not be entirely representative, some countries were not covered, and anticipated changes in mercury pollution all suggest a need for extended biomonitoring of human MeHg exposure.
    • Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of pharmacist-supervized patient self-testing of warfarin therapy

      Gallagher, J.; Mc Carthy, S.; Woods, N.; Ryan, F.; O' Shea, S.; Byrne, S. (Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2014-10)
    • Economic Evaluation of Early Intervention in Psychosis in Comparison to Treatment as Usual

      Behan, Caragh; School of Medicine, University College Dublin (University College Dublin, 2017)
    • Economic evaluation of robot-assisted hysterectomy: a cost-minimisation analysis

      Teljeur, C; O'Neill, M; Moran, PS; Harrington, P; Flattery, M; Murphy, L; Ryan, M (BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2014-05)
    • Educational psychology in Ireland and its Psychological Society of Ireland division – a history

      Swan, Desmond; University College Dublin, Ireland (The Irish Journal of Psychology, 2014-05)
    • Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

      O'Driscoll, Jeremiah; Kerin, Fearghal; Delahunt, Eamonn (2011-06-09)
      Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.
    • Effect of a family focused active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children

      O’Dwyer, Mareesa V; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe; Stratton, Gareth (2012-10-01)
      Abstract Background Early childhood provides a window of opportunity for the promotion of physical activity. Given the limited effectiveness of interventions to date, new approaches are needed. Socio-ecological models suggest that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier lifestyles in children. This study describes the effectiveness of a family-focused ‘Active Play’ intervention in decreasing sedentary time and increasing total physical activity in preschool children. Method Seventy-seven families were recruited from 8 randomly selected SureStart children’s centres in the North West of England. Centres were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 4) or a comparison group (n = 4). Parents and children in the intervention group received a 10-week active play programme delivered by trained active play professionals; this included an activity and educational component. Families in the comparison group were asked to maintain their usual routine. Each participating parent and child wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and post-test. Week and weekend day sedentary time and total physical activity adjusted for child- and home- level covariates were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time and physical activity for both week and weekend days. Children in the intervention group engaged in 1.5% and 4.3% less sedentary time during week and weekend days, respectively and 4.5% and 13.1% more physical activity during week and weekend days, respectively than children in the comparison group. Parent’s participation in sport and their physical activity levels, child’s sex, availability of media in the home and attendance at organised activities were significant predictors of sedentary time and physical activity in this age group. Conclusion A 10-week family focused active play intervention produced positive changes in sedentary time and total physical activity levels in preschool children. Specific covariates were identified as having a significant effect on the outcome measures. Moreover, children whose parents were active engaged in less sedentary time and more physical activity suggesting that parent’s activity habits are mediators of physical activity engagement in this age group.
    • The effect of alcohol consumption on household income in Ireland

      Ormond, Gillian; Murphy, Rosemary; Department of Accounting and Economics, Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland. Department of Economics, University College Cork, Ireland. (Elsevier, 2016-11)
    • Effect of BRCA2 sequence variants predicted to disrupt exonic splice enhancers on BRCA2 transcripts

      Whiley, Phillip J; Pettigrew, Christopher A; Brewster, Brooke L; Walker, Logan C; kConFab Investigators; Spurdle, Amanda B; Brown, Melissa A (2010-05-28)
      Abstract Background Genetic screening of breast cancer patients and their families have identified a number of variants of unknown clinical significance in the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Evaluation of such unclassified variants may be assisted by web-based bioinformatic prediction tools, although accurate prediction of aberrant splicing by unclassified variants affecting exonic splice enhancers (ESEs) remains a challenge. Methods This study used a combination of RT-PCR analysis and splicing reporter minigene assays to assess five unclassified variants in the BRCA2 gene that we had previously predicted to disrupt an ESE using bioinformatic approaches. Results Analysis of BRCA2 c.8308 G > A (p.Ala2770Thr) by mRNA analysis, and BRCA2 c.8962A > G (p.Ser2988Gly), BRCA2 c.8972G > A (p.Arg2991His), BRCA2 c.9172A > G (p.Ser3058Gly), and BRCA2 c.9213G > T (p.Glu3071Asp) by a minigene assay, revealed no evidence for aberrant splicing. Conclusions These results illustrate the need for improved methods for predicting functional ESEs and the potential consequences of sequence variants contained therein.
    • Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

      Markey, Oonagh; McClean, Conor M; Medlow, Paul; Davison, Gareth W; Trinick, Tom R; Duly, Ellie; Shafat, Amir (2011-09-07)
      Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284
    • The effect of menopause and hysterectomy on systemic vascular endothelial growth factor in women undergoing surgery for breast cancer

      Lowery, Aoife J; Sweeney, Karl J; Molloy, Alan P; Hennessy, Emer; Curran, Catherine; Kerin, Michael J (2008-09-30)
      Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic cytokine produced physiologically by the uterus. Pathological secretion by tumours promotes growth and metastasis. High circulating VEGF levels potentially have a deleterious effect on breast cancer by promoting disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate circulating VEGF levels in breast cancer patients and assess the effect of menopause or hysterectomy on systemic VEGF. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for breast cancer and controls matched for age, menopausal and hysterectomy status were prospectively recruited. Serum VEGF, FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone and platelet levels were measured. Serum VEGF was corrected for platelet load (sVEGFp) to provide a biologically relevant measurement of circulating VEGF. SVEGFp levels were analyzed with respect to tumor characteristics, menopausal status and hysterectomy status. Results Two hundred women were included in the study; 89 breast cancer patients and 111 controls. SVEGFp levels were significantly higher in breast cancer patients compared to controls (p = 0.0001), but were not associated with clinico-pathological tumor characteristics. Systemic VEGF levels reduced significantly in the breast cancer patients following tumor excision (p = 0.018). The highest systemic VEGF levels were observed in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Postmenopausal women who had had a previous hysterectomy had significantly higher VEGF levels than those with an intact postmenopausal uterus (p = 0.001). Conclusion This study identifies an intact postmenopausal uterus as a potential means of reducing circulating levels of VEGF which could confer a protective effect against breast cancer metastatic potential.
    • Effect of obesity on oxygen uptake and cardiovascular dynamics during whole-body and leg exercise in adult males and females.

      Green, Simon; O'Connor, Eamon; Kiely, Catherine; O'Shea, Donal; Egaña, Mikel (Physiological reports, 2018-05)
      Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise. Dynamic response characteristics of V˙O2 and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were assessed during cycling (80% ventilatory threshold) and calf exercise (30% MVC), respectively. Dynamic responses of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and total systemic vascular conductance were also assessed during cycling based on measurements at 30 and 240 sec. The time constant of the second phase of the V˙O2 response was significantly greater in obese than lean subjects (39.4 (9.2) vs. 29.1 (7.6) sec); whereas dynamic responses of cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance were not affected by BMI. For calf exercise, the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was slowed significantly in obese subjects (22.1 (12.7) sec) compared with lean and overweight subjects (11.6 (4.5) sec and 13.4 (6.7) sec). These data show that obesity slows dynamic responses of V˙O2 during cycling and the slower phase of vasodilation in contracting muscles of male and female adults.
    • The effect of pharmacist-led interventions in optimising prescribing in older adults in primary care: A systematic review

      Riordan, D. O.; Walsh, K. A.; Galvin, R.; Sinnott, C.; Kearney, P. M.; Byrne, S. (Sage Open Medicine, 2016-06-14)
    • Effect of phase I periodontal therapy on pro-coagulant state in chronic periodontitis patients – a clinical and haematological study

      Banthia, Ruchi; Jain, Parul; Banthia, Priyank; Belludi, Sphoorthi; Parwani, Simran (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2013-08)