Now showing items 21-40 of 32270

    • Monitoring maternal near miss/severe maternal morbidity: A systematic review of global practices.

      England, Natalie; Madill, Julia; Metcalfe, Amy; Magee, Laura; Cooper, Stephanie; Salmon, Charleen; Adhikari, Kamala (2020-05-29)
    • Suggestions to Improve the Comprehensibility of Current Definitions of Scientific Authorship for International Authors.

      Hosseini, Mohammad; Consoli, Luca; Zwart, H A E; van den Hoven, Mariette A (2019-04-23)
    • Characteristics of Upper Limb Impairment Related to Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Development of a Sensitive Hand Assessment (Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension Version Myelopathy).

      Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Riehm, Lauren E; Tetreault, Lindsay; Martin, Allan R; Teoderascu, Florentina; Massicotte, Eric; Curt, Armin; Verrier, Mary C; Velstra, Inge-Marie; Fehlings, Michael G
    • Histologic Case Definition of an Atypical Glomerular Immune-Complex Deposition Following Kidney Transplantation.

      Chin, Kuo-Kai; Charu, Vivek; O'Shaughnessy, Michelle M; Troxell, Megan L; Cheng, Xingxing S (2020-02-05)
      Introduction: Immune-complex deposition in the transplanted kidney can present as well-phenotyped recurrent or de novo glomerular disease. However, a subset, herein termed immune-complex glomerulopathy not otherwise specified (ICG-NOS), defies classification. We quantified, categorized, and characterized cases of transplant ICG-NOS occurring at a single US academic medical center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our single-institution pathology database (July 2007-July 2018) to identify and categorize all cases of immune-complex deposition in kidney allografts (based on immunofluorescence microscopy). We extracted clinicopathologic and outcome data for ICG-NOS (i.e., immune complex deposition not conforming to any well-characterized glomerular disease entity). Results: Of 104 patients with significant immune deposits, 28 (27%) were classified as ICG-NOS. We created 5 mutually exclusive ICG-NOS categories: Full-house, Quasi-full-house, IgA-rich, C1q-rich, and C1q-poor. Overall, 16 (57%) patients met criteria for definite or possible allograft rejection, including 9 (32%) with antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), 3 (11%) suspicious for ABMR, 1 (4%) with T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and 9 (32%) with borderline TCMR. After a median follow-up of 2.3 (range, 0.1-14.0) years after biopsy, 7 (25%) allografts had failed and an additional 8 (29%) had persistent renal dysfunction (hematuria, 14%; proteinuria, 21%; and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 11%). Conclusion: In contrast to prior studies, our findings suggest that ICG-NOS is not necessarily a benign glomerular process and that there may be an association between ICG-NOS and alloimmunity. Our immunofluorescence-based classification provides a framework for future studies aiming to further elucidate ICG-NOS pathogenesis and prognosis.
    • Treatment Outcomes in Trigeminal Neuralgia-A Systematic Review of Domains, Dimensions and Measures.

      Nova, Carolina Venda; Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Baker, Sarah R; Riordain, Richeal Ni (2020-01-27)
      Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a painful disorder characterized by sudden electric shock-like pain. It is a rare condition for which multiple treatments are available, including medical and surgical. The best treatment option is yet to be defined, and this is related to the lack of definition in the treatment outcomes and outcome measures. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all the outcomes and outcomes measures that have been published to date and highlight variability in their use. Methods: We have conducted a literature search using a wide range of databases (1946-2019 for medical and 2008-2019 for surgical treatment), for all intervention studies in TN. Four hundred and sixty-seven studies were selected for data extraction on TN classification, data collection method, intervention, and treatment outcomes mapped to the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT guidelines). Results: Most studies collected data on pain (n = 459) and side effects (n = 386) domains; however, very few collected data on the impact of treatment on physical (n = 46) and emotional functioning (n = 17) and on patient satisfaction (n = 35). There was high variability on outcome measures used for pain relief (n = 10), pain intensity (n = 9), and frequency of pain episodes (n = 3). Conclusions: A clear definition of what are the important outcomes for patients with TN is essential. The choice of standardized outcome measures allowing for consistent reporting in TN treatment will allow for comparison of studies and facilitate treatment choice for patients and clinicians thus, improving health outcomes and reducing health care cost. Keywords: BNI, The Barrow Neurology Institute Pain Intensity Scale; BPI, Brief Pain Inventory; COS, Core Outcome Set; MVD, Microvascular decompression; Outcome measures; QOL, Quality of life; Systematic review; TN, Trigeminal neuralgia; Treatment outcomes; Trigeminal neuralgia; VAS, Visual analogue scale.
    • Glomerulus-Selective Regulation of a Critical Period for Interneuron Plasticity in the Antennal Lobe.

      Chodankar, Ankita; Sadanandappa, Madhumala K; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Ramaswami, Mani (2020-06-12)
      Several features of the adult nervous systems develop in a "critical period" (CP), during which high levels of plasticity allow neural circuits to be tuned for optimal performance. Through an analysis of long-term olfactory habituation (LTH) in female Drosophila, we provide new insight into mechanisms by which CPs are regulated in vivo LTH manifests as a persistently reduced behavioral response to an odorant encountered for 4 continuous days and occurs together with the growth of specific, odorant-responsive glomeruli in the antennal lobe. We show that the CP for behavioral and structural plasticity induced by ethyl butyrate (EB) or carbon dioxide (CO2) closes within 48 h after eclosion. The elaboration of excitatory projection neuron (PN) processes likely contribute to glomerular volume increases, as follows: both occur together and similarly require cAMP signaling in the antennal lobe inhibitory local interneurons. Further, the CP for structural plasticity could be extended beyond 48 h if EB- or CO2-responsive olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are silenced after eclosion; thus, OSN activity is required for closing the CP. Strikingly, silencing of glomerulus-selective OSNs extends the CP for structural plasticity only in respective target glomeruli. This indicates the existence of a local, short-range mechanism for regulating CP closure. Such a local mechanism for CP regulation can explain why plasticity induced by the odorant geranyl acetate (which is attractive) shows no CP although it involves the same core plasticity mechanisms as CO2 and EB. Local control of closure mechanisms during the critical period can potentially impart evolutionarily adaptive, odorant-specific features to behavioral plasticity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The critical period for plasticity represents a stage of life at which animals learn specific tasks or features with particular facility. This work provides fresh evidence that mechanisms for regulating critical periods are broadly conserved across evolution. Thus, a critical period for long-term olfactory habituation in Drosophila, which closes early in adulthood can, like the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity in mammals, be extended by blocking sensory neurons early in life. Further observations show that critical periods for plasticity can be regulated by spatially restricted mechanisms, potentially allowing varied critical periods for plasticity to stimuli of different ethological relevance.
    • "Just-in-time" generation of datasets by considering structured representations of given consent for GDPR compliance.

      Debruyne, Christophe; Pandit, Harshvardhan J; Lewis, Dave; O'Sullivan, Declan (2020-04-15)
    • COVID-19 Public Health Guidance Database – 16 June 2021

      Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) (Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA), 2021-06-16)
    • In Vitro Characterisation of the Antioxidative Properties of Whey Protein Hydrolysates Generated under pH- and Non pH-Controlled Conditions.

      Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Le Gouic, Aurélien V; Deracinois, Barbara; Cudennec, Benoit; FitzGerald, Richard J (2020-05-05)
      Bovine whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolysed under pH-stat (ST) and non pH-controlled (free-fall, FF) conditions using Debitrase (DBT) and FlavorPro Whey (FPW). The resultant whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) were assessed for the impact of hydrolysis conditions on the physicochemical and the in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in oxidatively stressed HepG2 cells. Enzyme and hydrolysis condition dependent differences in the physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates were observed, however, the extent of hydrolysis was similar under ST and FF conditions. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) in vitro and cellular antioxidant activities were observed for the DBT compared to the FPW-WPHs. The WPHs generated under ST conditions displayed significantly higher (p < 0.05) oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values compared to the FF-WPHs. The impact of hydrolysis conditions was more pronounced in the in vitro compared to the cellular antioxidant assay. WPH peptide profiles (LC-MS/MS) were also enzyme and hydrolysis conditions dependent as illustrated in the case of β-lactoglobulin. Therefore, variation in the profiles of the peptides released may explain the observed differences in the antioxidant activity. Targeted generation of antioxidant hydrolysates needs to consider the hydrolysis conditions and the antioxidant assessment method employed.
    • A bioinformatics approach to identify novel long, non-coding RNAs in breast cancer cell lines from an existing RNA-sequencing dataset.

      Zaheed, Oza; Samson, Julia; Dean, Kellie (2020-02-24)
      Breast cancer research has traditionally centred on genomic alterations, hormone receptor status and changes in cancer-related proteins to provide new avenues for targeted therapies. Due to advances in next generation sequencing technologies, there has been the emergence of long, non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulators of normal cellular events, with links to various disease states, including breast cancer. Here we describe our bioinformatic analyses of a previously published RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset to identify lncRNAs with altered expression levels in a subset of breast cancer cell lines. Using a previously published RNA-seq dataset of 675 cancer cell lines, a subset of 18 cell lines was selected for our analyses that included 16 breast cancer lines, one ductal carcinoma in situ line and one normal-like breast epithelial cell line. Principal component analysis demonstrated correlation with well-established categorisation methods of breast cancer (i.e. luminal A/B, HER2 enriched and basal-like A/B). Through detailed comparison of differentially expressed lncRNAs in each breast cancer sub-type with normal-like breast epithelial cells, we identified 15 lncRNAs with consistently altered expression, including three uncharacterised lncRNAs. Utilising data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Genotype Tissue Expression (GETx) project via Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA2), we assessed clinical relevance of several identified lncRNAs with invasive breast cancer. Lastly, we determined the relative expression level of six lncRNAs across a spectrum of breast cancer cell lines to experimentally confirm the findings of our bioinformatic analyses. Overall, we show that the use of existing RNA-seq datasets, if re-analysed with modern bioinformatic tools, can provide a valuable resource to identify lncRNAs that could have important biological roles in oncogenesis and tumour progression.
    • Treatment of stimulant use disorder: A systematic review of reviews.

      Ronsley, Claire; Nolan, Seonaid; Knight, Rod; Hayashi, Kanna; Klimas, Jano; Walley, Alex; Wood, Evan; Fairbairn, Nadia (2020-06-18)
    • Integrated care: the role of the CBT clinical nurse specialist / prescriber.

      Carey, Marie; Waterford Institute of Technology (Waterford Institute of Technology, 2017-08)
    • A Tale of Two Ends: Repurposing Metallic Compounds from Anti-Tumour Agents to Effective Antibacterial Activity.

      Alves Ferreira, Daniela; M D R S Martins, Luísa; R Fernandes, Alexandra; Martins, Marta (2020-06-11)
    • Guidance on reopening of day services for older people in context of COVID-19 vaccination programme [v1.1]

      Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Health Service Executive, 2021-06-08)
    • Translation initiation downstream from annotated start codons in human mRNAs coevolves with the Kozak context.

      Benitez-Cantos, Maria S; Yordanova, Martina M; O'Connor, Patrick B F; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Andreev, Dmitry E; Baranov, Pavel V (2020-07-15)
      Eukaryotic translation initiation involves preinitiation ribosomal complex 5'-to-3' directional probing of mRNA for codons suitable for starting protein synthesis. The recognition of codons as starts depends on the codon identity and on its immediate nucleotide context known as Kozak context. When the context is weak (i.e., nonoptimal), leaky scanning takes place during which a fraction of ribosomes continues the mRNA probing. We explored the relationship between the context of AUG codons annotated as starts of protein-coding sequences and the next AUG codon occurrence. We found that AUG codons downstream from weak starts occur in the same frame more frequently than downstream from strong starts. We suggest that evolutionary selection on in-frame AUGs downstream from weak start codons is driven by the advantage of the reduction of wasteful out-of-frame product synthesis and also by the advantage of producing multiple proteoforms from certain mRNAs. We confirmed translation initiation downstream from weak start codons using ribosome profiling data. We also tested translation of alternative start codons in 10 specific human genes using reporter constructs. In all tested cases, initiation at downstream start codons was more productive than at the annotated ones. In most cases, optimization of Kozak context did not completely abolish downstream initiation, and in the specific example of CMPK1 mRNA, the optimized start remained unproductive. Collectively, our work reveals previously uncharacterized forces shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes and points to the plurality of translation initiation and the existence of sequence features influencing start codon selection, other than Kozak context.